"We Saiyans are sort of like planet brokers. We scour space for planets that will bring a high price on the galactic market. Once we find them we send our warriors there to purge them of any life and make them ready for sale. It's a very, very profitable business and we take great pride in being efficient in our work."
Saiyans (サイヤ人 Saiya-jin) are a race of extraterrestrials in the Dragon Ball anime and manga and its adaptive sequels, Dragon Ball Z, Dragon Ball GT and Dragon Ball Super. In the series, the Saiyans from Universe 7 are a naturally aggressive warrior race who were supposedly striving to be the strongest in the universe, while the Saiyans from Universe 6 are protectors. Nearly all of the Saiyans from Universe 7 were obliterated by Frieza before the start of the Dragon Ball series.
Main article: Origins of character names The name is a pun on yajin (野人) which means "wildman", and an anagram of yasai (野菜) which means "vegetable". The suffix -jin means "person". "Saiyan" is the English transliteration of the roman letter term Saiya-jin. In the Japanese language, Saiya-jin (サイヤ人) is pronounced "Sigh-ya-jeen" while in the English dubs, "Saiyan" is pronounced "Sey-uhn".
The homeworld of the Saiyans is Planet Sadala. The planet has a natural gravity that is ten times that of Earth, which helps give Saiyans a greater natural strength than most races. In Universe 7, the Saiyans lived here but their planet got destroyed by internal discord; in Universe 6, the planet still exists. In Universe 7, Planet Plant is conquered by the Saiyans after the defeat of the Tuffles, and they renamed it "Planet Vegeta" after their most powerful warrior and ruler, King Vegeta.
At some point, Planet Vegeta was visited by the God of Destruction Beerus, who ultimately deemed the Saiyans as a savage race with no chance of improving (or more accurately he felt that they were just annoying). He ultimately ordered Frieza to destroy the planet and the entire Saiyan race, who was of a similar mind set as he came to see the Saiyan race as potentially posing a threat to his tyranny. To which, the tyrant went to the planet and completely obliterated them from space, wiping out all but a small group of Saiyans.
- Universe 7
A baby Saiyan's power level is measured as soon as they are born, if their power level is up to standard they are raised as upper-level warriors and become combatant candidates. If their power level remains low even after a certain amount of time has passed they are classed as low-level warriors and become either engineers or infiltration babies. Infiltration babies are sent off to a planet the Saiyans have selected for take over, and if the baby grows up into a warrior capable of taking over the planet they are allowed to return as a full-fledged combatant. Infiltration babies have a low survival rate.
Saiyans do not naturally know how to fly, some need to be taught, while others work it out on their own (like Pan did in Dragon Ball Super). Training to increase power level is also uncommon, with only a few Saiyan children receiving a short period of special training to acquire a greater power level.
Saiyans do not celebrate any holidays. Instead of playing like Earthling children, Saiyan children fight amongst themselves.
Pride was significant to Saiyans until they were tamed by Frieza's army; causing all of the Saiyans who served Frieza (aside from Bardock) to have lost their pride.
Even prior to joining the Frieza Force, Saiyans possessed spaceships and combat-based items more advanced than Earth.
At some point Saiyans became capable with biotechnology, becoming able to create and even upgrade Saibamen.
Main article: Saiyan Army The Saiyans possessed a powerful military, the Saiyan Army (named only in the Funimation dub). As of Age 737, the Saiyan Army was under the command of Nappa (also stated only in the Funimation dub), who was its most powerful general. The Saiyan Army was employed under the Frieza Force, in which the tyrant would use the Saiyan warriors to conquer planets for him. Normally only upper level warriors are allowed to become combatants in the Saiyan Army, and they are chosen from birth, the army employs various ranks based on power levels: the only ranks mentioned in the series are "Elites" and "Low-Class", with the series creator Akira Toriyama confirming in an interview that there are also "Mid-Class" warriors; while almost all Saiyans are low-class warriors, there are only about ten mid-class warriors, and only King Vegeta and Prince Vegeta are elite warriors. This rank is determined by an innate latent battle power, but if their battle power rises greatly afterward, they can be promoted. Saiyans who are deemed lower level warriors from birth are usually not able to become combatants, however a lower level warrior who is made an infiltration baby and who returns successful from their mission will be allowed to be a full-fledged combatant. The military force met its final destruction when Frieza committed his Genocide of the Saiyans, with the force's only survivors being Vegeta, Nappa, Raditz, Onio, and two other male Saiyans.
In Universe 6, the Saiyans try to protect the universe and get rid of evil-doers. Because of this, they are known as Heroes of Justice. They also have their own elite unit in charge in protecting their home planet, called the Sadala Army.
- Ancient Saiyans
Ancient Saiyans (alternatively known as Prehistoric Saiyans) existed long ago. Aside from time travelers, none still exist in the modern time. They possess ki completely different from their modern day counterparts, but like them can transform into the Great Ape, Super Saiyan, Super Saiyan 2 and Super Saiyan 3 forms.
Most of these Saiyans were evil, the most notable being Cumber, who displayed the unique "Evil Aura" and as an extension of this, their golden-haired Super Saiyan forms possessed differences to modern Saiyans and they were capable of drawing out the full power of Super Saiyan 3.
A subspecies of ancient Saiyans were the "Super Saiyan God race", born from the original Super Saiyan God. Good ancient Saiyans are referred to as "the defeated" by Giblet due to them having been defeated and killed by evil Saiyans. They possess the potential to become Super Saiyan Gods.
In Dragon Ball Legends, the Tournament of Time was masterminded and created by Zahha to complete the Omnificence Crystal (a failed prototype Super Dragon Ball) by placing the two fragments that make up the crystal inside the Super Saiyan God race twins Shallot and Giblet, then have them become Super Saiyan Gods so he could manipulate them into fighting in an epic "battle of Super Saiyan Gods". In addition to being able to achieve Super Saiyan, Super Saiyan 2, Super Saiyan 3, and Super Saiyan God, Shallot has shown the ability to power-up via rage which temporarily causes him to produce the image of a Great Ape in his aura and pupils to briefly turn red. Shallot also exhibits a heightened sense of smell superior to even that of modern Saiyans like Goku and Broly, as Shallot's nose can even determine someone's power level via their scent alone. Additionally Shallot's sense of smell allows him to track those that lack ki signatures such as Red Ribbon Androids via their scent. Additionally, Shallot was able to learn Ki Sense on his first try after just a little instruction from Gohan (Kid). Both Giblet and Shallot reveal that they and the members of their subspecies of Ancient Saiyan, fought the Evil Ancient Saiyans who had fallen from the "true Saiyan way" that Yamoshi, the Original Super Saiyan God, Giblet, and Shallot had fought to restore, though ultimately failed due to the Evil Ancient Saiyans wiping them all out thus revealing that the evil Modern Saiyans of Universe 7 are the result of them inheriting the brutal ways of their Evil Ancient Saiyan ancestors.
- Modern Saiyans
The modern Saiyans are descended from the evil ancient Saiyans who killed the original Super Saiyan God and historically wiped out the Super Saiyan God subspecies of Ancient Saiyan. The Saiyans who eventually joined the Frieza Force were the Saiyans who moved from Planet Sadala to Planet Vegeta, nearly all of them were wiped out by Frieza - leaving only a handful remaining. These Saiyans have displayed the ability to take on any Saiyan form aside from the full power Super Saiyan 3 and those exclusive to the Legendary Saiyan. Modern Saiyans are referred to as "the tainted" by Giblet due to possessing the blood of the evil Saiyans. Giblet also refers to modern Saiyans of Universe 6 & Universe 7 as Neo Saiyans though is seemingly ignorant that Universe 6 Saiyans are different from modern Saiyans of Universe 7, due to the Mastermind's manipulation.
- Earthling hybrids
While the Saiyans who worked under the Frieza Force are near extinct, they have carried on through Saiyan-Earthling hybrids through Goku and Vegeta, with these hybrids being fairly common by Age 1000.
Through advanced science, hybrid clones composed of Saiyans along with numerous other races were created from Age 767 on-wards. Bio-Androids like Cell have displayed the ability to use the Super Saiyan forms. The demonic Saiyan Bio-Androids have displayed their own distinct Super Saiyan form and can achieve the Dark King state via the Dark Factor.
- Godly beings
Saiyans who are full deities can also exist, though only one and his counterpart have existed as a Supreme Kai candidate. Saiyans who are proper godly beings possess natural god ki, as well as an altered Super Saiyan Blue. Additionally in Super Dragon Ball Heroes, his counterpart achieves godly versions of Super Saiyan 2 and Super Saiyan 3, as well as full power of their altered Super Saiyan 3 during which their Tail regrows.
- Tuffle hybrids
Tuffle-Saiyans only existed in Age 789 as a result of Baby and his Tuffle Parasites invading Earth. Fully Tuffleized Saiyans have displayed their own variants of the golden-haired Super Saiyan forms known as the "Strongest Forms".
- Evolved Saiyans
The Saiyans of Universe 6 differ from their Universe 7 counterparts in that they never left Planet Sadala and are a more heroic species. Additionally, they have evolved so they no longer possess tails and subsequently can't access the Great Ape form through conventional means. They have displayed the ability to achieve the Super Saiyan form, as well as Super Saiyan 2.
In Dragon Ball Legends, Giblet refers to Cabba as a Neo Saiyan, though due to the Mastermind's manipulation Giblet is seemingly unaware that Cabba originates from Universe 6 and mistakenly groups him with the Modern Saiyans of Universe 7. Interestingly, Cabba has a chance to reveal this fact to Giblet when he accuses a confused Cabba of the same crimes committed by modern Saiyans such as Turles and members of Saiyan Army, but Zahha (during the period he was acting as a double agent) interrupts before Cabba can reveal that the Evolved Saiyans of Universe 6 had not fallen from the "true Saiyan way" (that the righteous Giblet and Shallot fought for in their era) due to Zahha convincing Cabba his words won't sway Giblet.
- Tuffle hybrids
Tuffle-Saiyans only existed in Age 780 as a result of Oren and Kamin invading Sadala. Fully Tuffleized Saiyans have displayed their own variants of the golden-haired Super Saiyan forms known as the "Strongest Forms".
Legendary Saiyans are a unique type of Saiyan that exist in both Universe 7 and Universe 6. An individual Legendary Saiyan is born once every 1,000 years in both universes. These Saiyans are demonic mutants and have massive power levels even upon birth. While not shown to be able to take on any normal Saiyan forms aside from the basic Great Ape, these Saiyans possess their own transformation line based around the Legendary Super Saiyan state.
Despite their demonic nature, Legendary Saiyans can be gentle hearted as shown by Kale of Universe 6 and Broly of Universe 7 (and to a much lesser extent implied to be the case with the original Broly when rendered amnesiac in Supersonic Warriors 2 as well as the doctors discussing him and Goku's traits in a flashback to their births in his debut film). However, because of their demonic nature, they can end up becoming violent, bloodthirsty, and destructive like the original Broly, his clone Bio-Broly, and alternate world counterpart Dark Broly. Because of their destructive tendencies legendary Saiyans are feared in both Universe 6 and 7, though in Universe 7 they are often associated with the legends pertaining to the Super Saiyan of Legend as the general Saiyan population in Universe 7 tends to be more barbaric and violent than their more evolved Universe 6 counterparts.
The Saiyans are a fighting race who, since ancient times, have lived a violent and inhumane lifestyle, where they attack numerous planets to build up wealth and goods. Dragon Ball GT: Perfect File speculates that Saiyans were originally Great Apes who gained intelligence and took on a humanoid form. As noted by Whis, "ancient Saiyans" possess different ki from the ones in the present time.
The previous Super Saiyan appeared approximately 1,000 years (3,000 in the Ocean Group dubs) prior to the Frieza Saga, approximately 238 Before Age, and is described by Vegeta as a Super Saiyan who could only retain his status in the transformed state. As per the story of the Super Saiyan God told from the Namekian Book of Legends, this Saiyan was an individual with a noble heart, and along some of his comrades, tried to stop their evil fellow Saiyans. However, he couldn't achieve his goal and perished. In the legend, Yamoshi appeared to have lost control and gave in to his destructive primitive desires, destroying himself with his own power, in actuality Yamoshi was killed by the evil Saiyans. The good Saiyans and evil Saiyans were in conflict for a long time, with the good Saiyans only ever managing to get one victory to their name, eventually the evil Saiyans wiped out the good Saiyans, and thus all modern day Saiyans are descended from them. At some point in the era of the conflict between good and evil Saiyans, Cumber fought for the evil Saiyans side, and seemingly encountered a Super Saiyan God - however Cumber was whisked away from the conflict and brought to the future by Fu as part of his plans. Similarly, Shallot and Giblet were among those who fought on the good Saiyans side, but were taken from their rightful time to participate in the Tournament of Time.
A small group of Saiyans eventually found their way to Planet Plant in Age 550, and the history of the Saiyans predating their conflict with the Tuffles was revealed in the anime, where it is discussed heavily during the Vegeta Saga, as well as in the OVA Plan to Eradicate the Saiyans. It is also a central theme in the Baby Saga of Dragon Ball GT. GT Perfect Files speculate the launching point of the Saiyan's spaceships as being the Saiyans' true homeland itself.
During the Vegeta Saga of Dragon Ball Z, King Kai describes the Saiyans as a group of barbaric aliens who shared a planet with a race known as the Tuffles. The Saiyans lived in the arid wastelands, while the Tuffles lived in great cities, employing advanced technology. Eventually the Saiyans attacked, vowing to conquer the Tuffle's great cities and extinguish the race. This sparked a ten year long war (described in greater detail below).
It is revealed in Plan to Eradicate the Saiyans that when the Saiyans arrived on Planet Plant, they were welcomed by the Tuffles. The Tuffle survivor, Dr. Lychee, then describes the horrors of the war in a similar fashion to the one King Kai tells. However whilst explaining, Vegeta states the Tuffles used the Saiyan race as slaves.
During the Baby Saga of Dragon Ball GT, Baby described the history of the Saiyans war with the Tuffles in a different manner. He states that the Saiyans first arrived in mysterious space-pods and attacked the Tuffles in cold blood. He states they were led by Vegeta's father, and upon the rising of the full moon, the Saiyans assumed their Great Ape transformations, completely wiping out the Tuffle race in a single night.
War with the Tuffles
Main article: Saiyan-Tuffle war
King Kai explained the story of the Saiyan race to Goku during the Vegeta Saga. He explains that around Age 720, a civil war broke out. The Saiyan Army tried many times to overthrow the Tuffles but were unsuccessful, sparking a ten-year conflict on the planet. Although the Saiyans were bigger in size and physically far superior, they were fewer in number compared to the Tuffles. The Tuffles had a trump card in the form of their technology to read the power levels of the Saiyans and advanced weaponry such as blasters to hold them off. Then, around Age 730, the Saiyans were able to transform into Great Apes thanks to the full moon that only appeared once every 100 years on the planet; with this, they finally annihilated the Tuffles and renamed the planet Planet Vegeta after their commanding hero, King Vegeta.
Meeting other races
King Kai goes on to explain that after their victory over the Tuffles, the Saiyans were approached by the Arcosians. These aliens had money and technology, but their planet was unsuitable, so they hired a group of Saiyans to take over a planet for them; in return, they would share their technology with them. Over the years, the Saiyans also learned how to use the Tuffles' advanced equipment and became smarter and less barbaric, although they still lusted for fighting and destruction.
Occupation by Frieza
In Universe 7, according to Akira Toriyama, the Saiyans joined the Frieza Force when it was still under the command of King Cold, while according to Daizenshuu 7 around Age 731, about a year following the Saiyan victory over the Tuffles, the planet was conquered or annexed by Frieza's empire and the Saiyans (like many other races) were drafted to serve as soldiers in Frieza's military.
Due to the Saiyans' innate strength and penchant for violence, they were considered to be useful mercenaries and assisted in the conquering of many planets, or if assignment called for, eradication of the planet's population (even Saiyan children were considered powerful enough to conquer some of the weaker planets, such as Earth).
Eventually, seeing how quickly some of the more gifted Saiyan warriors were gaining power through battle, around Age 735, Frieza grew concerned with the potential of the Saiyan race and thought that they would grow strong enough to face him or even become the fabled Super Saiyans, able to defeat him in battle. In Age 737, a Saiyan scientist develops the Saibamen using biotechnology and those creatures make their way into the Galactic Frieza Army through the Saiyans. Soon, that same year the maniacal warlord Frieza destroyed Planet Vegeta, nearly eradicating the Saiyan race. There were only a few thousand Saiyans on the planet. As a warrior race, it would be difficult to increase their numbers (presumably, though left unsaid, because they would war with each other over superiority). The manga reveals only four pure-blood Saiyans who have survived the destruction: Kakarot (Goku), Vegeta, Nappa, and Raditz as they were not on the planet at the time. Once the latter three discovered that their planet was destroyed, Frieza lied to them that an asteroid had hit their world, and offered them continued employment in return for eventual wealth.
Over two decades later, the Saiyans were finally avenged when Goku defeated Frieza on planet Namek. Frieza later met his first death on Earth a year later, when Future Trunks killed him. In the Dragon Ball Z movies only, three more Saiyans survived the catastrophe: Turles, Broly and Paragus. In the manga and special Yo! Son Goku and His Friends Return!!, Vegeta's brother Tarble is shown as another survivor. In the manga Nekomajin Z, Onio appears. In Dragon Ball Super: Broly, Broly and Paragus are revealed to have survived. Two unnamed mid-class Saiyans are also shown to have survived the genocide, as they were on the same mission with Vegeta, Nappa and Raditz when Planet Vegeta was destroyed.
Survival through Earthlings
Main article: Earthling Goku, after suffering a head injury as an infant, lost all memory of his mission and past, and was raised as an Earthling. When he did find out about his heritage years later, he still considered Earth as his home. Goku married Chi-Chi, an Earthling who was his childhood sweetheart, and she bore him two half-breed sons, Gohan and Goten, and they later have a quarter-breed granddaughter, Pan. Vegeta would arrive in Earth with the intention of obtaining the Dragon Balls and destroying the planet, however, losing his battle against Goku and the conflict with taking down Frieza served as crucial epiphanies for Vegeta. After this, he ended up settling on Earth initially to wait for his rematch with Goku. Vegeta would later fall in love with and marry Bulma, who bore him two half-breed children, Trunks and Bulla. After more than 100 years since the Saiyans first came to Earth, there were fewer Saiyan descendants left, with Goku Jr., Vegeta Jr., Pan, and Bulma Leigh being the last survivors of the Saiyans.
By the time of the events of Dragon Ball Online, pure blooded Saiyans had become extinct in Universe 7, as the only survivors of the planet Vegeta's destruction were male. However, Goku and Vegeta's families had spread and so many Earthlings possessed hidden Saiyan genes, and thus the traits of the Saiyans, such as the potential to become Super Saiyan, and also to receive Saiyan Power. Many of these Earthlings with Saiyan traits joined the Time Patrol and soon awakened their hidden Saiyan powers.
In Universe 6, their history diverged from that of Universe 7, the Saiyans remain to be a thriving race with their original planet intact. They have also come to use their innate capacity for combat productively, fighting evil rather than causing it. Around 220 Before Age, a Legendary Saiyan appeared among the Universe 6 Saiyans.
Universe 6 Saiyans lack tails and can transform into a Super Saiyan with more ease once they obtain the knowledge of the transformation. However, the Universe 6 Saiyans were unaware of the existence of the Super Saiyan transformation until they were introduced to it by the Universe 7 Saiyans in Age 779 - with Cabba being the first Saiyan of Universe 6 to achieve the form. The only transformation that the Universe 6 Saiyans were aware of was the demonic Legendary Saiyan, with a Saiyan capable of transforming into it appearing once every 1,000 years.
Universe 6 Saiyans, similar to their counterparts, were employed by the emperor of the universe, Frost, in order to fight in wars on his behalf. In the anime there was the added distinction of Frost starting the wars himself for a profit duping his employees in the process until his exposure as a space pirate.
The Saiyans of the twin universes came to fight in combat in the Tournament of Power. When Team Universe 6 lost in the Tournament of Power, the Saiyans were erased with the rest of Universe 6. They were later revived when the erased universes were restored.
Saiyans are outwardly very similar to Human-type Earthlings, with the exception of their monkey-like tails. They are commonly seen to have black hair, black eyes (although the anime has occasionally shown brown, blue and blonde hair and purple eyes), and yellow skin. In at least the case of Universe 6 saiyans, their irises are slightly lighter than their pupils. Naturally growing stronger as they mature, they gain a very muscular and well-defined build.
Vegeta states that the hair of a pure-blooded Saiyan does not deviate from its appearance from the day the Saiyan is born. However, it can fall off, as seen with the bald Nappa (he had hair in the TV special Dragon Ball Z: Bardock - The Father of Goku). This is somewhat contradicted by a young Vegeta shown with strands of hair hanging in front of his forehead, but later has his characteristic widow's peak. This is not the case with hybrid-Saiyans who are shown to have several different lengths and styles for their hair throughout the series.
Facial hair of pure-blooded Saiyan males can grow. Some examples are Nappa, Vegeta, and Paragus who have all been seen with mustaches, while King Vegeta himself had a beard. While Saiyans can grow beards it apparently takes them a long time, as seen when Goku and Vegeta spent three years in the Hyperbolic Time Chamber, yet only grew enough facial hair to cover their faces. Given that Saiyans have evolved to have a slowed aging process upon reaching physical maturity in order to fight longer, this is most likely why it takes so long for Saiyans to develop facial hair.
Saiyans, at least as adults, are resistant to extreme temperatures, far more so than humans, as evidenced by Bardock going into outer space to face Frieza for the last time, Broly surviving being frozen in a glacier, and Goku training in the Hyperbolic Time Chamber and facing Lord Slug and his minions when they used a machine to cause the Earth's climate to get extremely cold. This resistance to cold is likely either a trait gained over time from evolution in harsh climates or due to the energy consumption of Saiyans increasing their ambient body temperature far above a human's, even in a resting state. Even in a functional, calm state, Goku has shown to be unaffected by glacial temperatures on Earth.
All pure-blooded Saiyans from Universe 7 are born with a brown-furred monkey-like tail. Commonly for adult Saiyans, they will wrap their tail around their hip as a makeshift belt for better convenience. The tail is very prehensile, and can be used to grasp things (much like some do), giving them in a sense an extra hand to fight with.
While as strong and coordinated as any other limb on the Saiyan, the tail is a particularly sensitive area. When grabbed or injured, it causes great pain to the owner, leaving them drained of all strength and effectively immobilizing the whole body. However, the Saiyans can train themselves to overcome this weakness, leaving them unaffected altogether, like Goku did when he preparing for the 22nd World Martial Arts Tournament or Vegeta and Nappa before coming to Earth. Their monkey-like tails, alongside their turning into Great Apes, is the main reason why those of Saiyan descent are sometimes referred to as "monkeys" or "apes" as a racial slur (especially notable by the Frieza Force's reference to them as such).
The tail also serves to help young Saiyans with balance, as when Goku and Gohan's tails were first removed, they had trouble standing, let alone moving about. However, when Vegeta's tail was cut off, his balance was unaffected, possibly due to the Saiyan prince having adjusted to the balance after years of wearing his tail at the hip.
As noted by Raditz, the tail is the source of a Saiyan's true strength (Great Ape form), enabling them to perform to their maximum efficiency. This was supported by Goku who once stated that he feels stronger with it than without it. The most unique and prominent ability the tail provides Saiyans is to transform into a Great Ape if exposed to the Blutz Waves of a full moon. If the tail is removed, this power is lost, forcing them back into their normal state if transformed at the time. If the tail is lost it will often suddenly grow back if the Saiyan is in danger. However, once a Saiyan reaches a certain level of strength, the Saiyan's body seems to deem the tail as an unnecessary appendage if removed. A Saiyan's tail has an 8% chance of growing back, and will not grow back if they have surpassed the power of their Great Ape form in their base form.
It is shown in Dragon Ball GT that the tails also provide a boost in Super Saiyan transformations, as when Goku was shrunk into the size of a child, he had trouble maintaining his transformations until his tail reformed, to the point where he was able to easily activate Super Saiyan 3 and maintain it for a considerable amount of time (along with his tail's fur turning gold).
Gohan is the only half-breed Saiyan seen with a tail in the series. Other half-breeds like Trunks, Goten, and Bulla are not seen with tails. The reason behind this is never explained in the series other than it was hypothesized their tails were removed at birth, but Akira Toriyama has stated that tails are a recessive trait. Despite most deceased warriors who keep possession of their bodies are healed from any injuries or dismemberments (i.e. Tien Shinhan's severed arm), no Saiyan with a lost tail are shown to have regrown it upon being resurrected.
In Universe 6, Saiyans naturally no longer have tails. This is because of the evolution process they underwent in their universe, presumably enabling them to naturally access maximum capacity without additional training. It is unknown if this permanently voids Universe 6 Saiyans of the Great Ape form or can access it without the need of a tail.
In the Super History Book, released on January 21, 2016 as part of the celebration of the 30th anniversary of the Dragon Ball franchise, Toriyama finally explains the reason why he did away with Saiyans' tails. He explains that it was confusing for him how Saiyans dressed themselves with the tail on, and these sorts of minutiae annoyed him to no end, enticing him to get rid of Saiyans' tails.
Saiyans tend to share common personality traits, even at young ages. Being aggressively militant, they share an innate enjoyment for conflict and fighting, choosing violence over peace with other races. Even Goku retained his love to fight after his amnesia, but satisfied that love through competitive sport, rather than barbaric slaughter. Saiyans are typically very aggressive and hard-headed, with short explosive tempers. Saiyans appear inclined to be arrogant at times, leading them to allow enemies to gain advantages in battle just for fun. It appears they have a tendency to let their emotions get the better of them when roused in stimulating situations (as demonstrated by Vegeta, Goku, Nappa, and Bardock), resulting in them at times making rash decisions. Normally, Saiyans do not have much of a notion of romance or marriage, and apart from the royal family of Vegeta, they are not particular about blood-relationships.
They appear to lack sympathetic emotions as though by choice rather than by nature, as shown by their relative lack of fear of death and uncaring attitude towards family members (example being Raditz's brutal beating of his long-lost brother Goku, and Vegeta's seeming indifference to his father's death). Clearly, neither Vegeta nor Nappa showed any signs of sympathy for their fallen comrade Raditz when he was killed. They merely laughed and stated that he was only a "weakling", although Nappa did suggest bringing Raditz back to life with the Dragon Balls. Vegeta and Nappa themselves had a good degree of camaraderie between them, but Vegeta did not hesitate to kill Nappa later on when he displayed weakness after being crippled by Goku. Saiyans value honor for their race above anything else and seemed to have been not only opposed to mating with other races but producing half-breed offspring. This is based on Vegeta's initial disapproval of Nappa's suggestion they conceive children with female Earthlings to recreate the Saiyan race, his disgust at Gohan for possessing unusual powers that surpass a full-blooded Saiyan while being part Saiyan, and his initial refusal to accept his son, Trunks, during the child's early years. Most Saiyans also possess a keen fighting sense and understanding of battle, which allows them to acquire many new skills, such as overcoming the weakness of their tails, learning to detect ki, and achieving new fighting forms and transformations.
Bardock appears to be the exception to the uncaring attitude of Saiyans: he shows some care for his wife Gine and his youngest son Kakarot in Dragon Ball Minus, and he is shocked and saddened at seeing his crew, with his best friend Tora among them, slaughtered by Dodoria in the television special Bardock - The Father of Goku. This also shows that perhaps the uncaring attitude of Saiyans is a choice, rather than natural. Bardock's last words while facing Frieza are "This is for all the people we killed in your name" (he only states this in the Funimation dub, it is never present in the Japanese version), he also states that he was not all evil (also Funimation dub only). After the destruction of Planet Vegeta, Bardock talks to Goku from the other side, saying "I wish I could have held you in my own two arms" (also Funimation dub only). To a lesser extent, King Vegeta also shows a degree of care, since part of the reason he rebelled against Frieza was rooted in paternal instincts of trying to protect his eldest son from having to be handed over to the tyrant despite being forced into doing so earlier, and opted to merely exile his youngest son Tarble instead of killing him due to his weak power level. Similarly, it was implied that his exiling Broly in Dragon Ball Super was similarly rooted in his parental instincts towards Vegeta.
Even Vegeta himself later has been shown to express emotion, such as when he was dying from his wounds inflicted by Frieza, when Future Trunks was killed by Cell, and when he sacrifices himself to destroy Majin Buu. He later develops a loving relationship with his wife Bulma and has shown genuine affection and care for his children, Trunks and Bulla. Also, Vegeta's brother Tarble lacks the characteristic aggression of Saiyans, which also served as the reason why King Vegeta sent him to another planet. Goku's mother Gine is also noted to lack the characteristic aggression of the Saiyans which apparently made her unfit for life in the army as she often had to be saved by Bardock on missions. Eventually she decided to leave the army and went to work in the meat processing industry and became Bardock's wife developing a genuine loving relationship with him. The existence of the original Super Saiyan God who got his power from five other pure hearted Saiyans in the past also implies that the barbaric and uncaring attitude had been a choice at some point in their history, rather than being an inborn character to all Saiyans.
The Saiyans also seem to believe that death is preferable compared to living with the shame of losing against someone inferior to them in level, which is especially evident with Vegeta and his primary motivation for his rivalry with Goku. However, while he still believes fighting to death is an honorable act of a Saiyan, Vegeta is able to use his rivalry with Goku as a motivation to test his limits and allow them to develop a unique friendship.
The trait that sets almost all pure-blooded Saiyans apart is their innate lust for battle. This trait seems to be maintained even in kind-hearted Saiyans like Goku, and does not diminish when a Saiyan loses their cold-heartedness like Vegeta. This trait causes many Saiyans to seek out stronger opponents, either to test their might or for the desire to be the best. This trait has been the cause of many of the major conflicts in the series, as Goku's love for fighting leads him to seek out battles with strong individuals such as Frieza and Beerus. Saiyans also have a tendency to conduct battles in a sport-like manner, preferring one on one matches and often not using their full power straight away in order to get the best out of a fight. This desire to draw out a worthy opponent has also been the cause of many conflicts, as refusing to co-operate or end a fight quickly often results in a Saiyan being defeated less by an opponent and more their own natures.
In Dragon Ball Super, Vegeta reveals that Saiyan females have strong willed personalities and such characteristics were sought out as mates for male Saiyans, which causes Piccolo to surmise that this is why Saiyan males like Goku and Vegeta chose strong willed human females like Chi-Chi and Bulma as their respective wives.
Kind-hearted Saiyans under the initial influence of the Super Saiyan form will become more barbaric, rash and explosively hot-headed and those who had typical Saiyan traits will had them amplified to a great degree, while in some cases changing their strategic mind to a more brash and impulsive one, these traits can be eliminated through training whatsoever.
Cabba, a Saiyan from Universe 6, explains to Vegeta that the Saiyans from his universe are not as brutal as compared to their Universe 7 counterparts. The Saiyans from Universe 6 are not planet sharks and they are employed to stop evil beings. To which, most Saiyans of Universe 6 appear to have a calmer and kinder nature compared to the majority of their Universe 7 counterparts, regarding the Saiyans with a rare aggressive attitude as "punks". However, they are still a warrior race regardless.
Calm-hearted Saiyans who attained and are under the influence of the Ultra Instinct Sign transformation will show a demeanor that generally contradicts their usual impulsive and prideful personality, becoming much calmer, collected, more serious, lacking egoism, as well as more disciplined-like than before as well as more clever minded, as demonstrated by Goku cleverly using the Divine Kamehameha as a last resort to defeat the fused Kefla.
In Dragon Ball Legends, it is revealed that members of the Super Saiyan God subspecies of righteous Ancient Saiyan sought to defeat the Evil Ancient Saiyans in order to restore what they considered to be the true Saiyan way. The twins Shallot and Giblet both sought to achieve the red-haired Super Saiyan God form like their ancestor the Original Super Saiyan God, seeking to succeed where they and Yamoshi failed. However due to subtle manipulation, memory alteration, and Dark Ki, the Mastermind turned Giblet into an extremist who sought to wipe out all modern Saiyans (including those from Universe 6 due to being aware of Universe 6 Evolved Saiyans or their history) due to them being descendants of the Evil Saiyans who destroyed Giblet and Shallot's people. Giblet also comes to believe that it was their people's reluctance to exterminate the Evil Saiyans that lead them to only know defeat. Shallot however had come to know several Modern Saiyans both good and evil, with some like pre-DBZ Nappa and the pre-DBZ Vegeta becoming less evil due to their mentoring of Shallot, with pre-DBZ Vegeta dying to protect Shallot due to being inspired by his Ancient Saiyan pupil and Nappa who sent Shallot to aid Vegeta even if it meant dying in battle against the Frieza Force, ultimately survived his battle with the Ginyu Force would later come to Shallot's aid when the Mastermind's group attempted to prevent Shallot's Super Saiyan God ritual. During his subsequent battle with Giblet, Shallot demonstrates his resolve by opposing his brother's genocidal plan, determined to protect his fellow Saiyans regardless of their heritage. Giblet shows that even righteous Ancient Saiyans can become corrupted and that even ruthless Saiyan warriors like Nappa, can become better people under the right circumstances just as Giblet became self righteous and willing to engage in genocide, like the Evil Saiyans he had fought all his life against. However once freed of the Mastermind's influence following his defeat by Shallot, Giblet returns to his former self as shown by him asking Goku (whom Giblet had once sworn to kill for achieving Super Saiyan God, due to seeing him as unworthy of it due to his heritage) to give Shallot a message for him.
Apparently, besides power levels, Saiyan children are determined on whether they make suitable warriors by the extent in which they loudly cry as infants. This was implied in Paragus's flashback to Goku and Broly's birth in Broly - The Legendary Super Saiyan where two Saiyan medics are discussing the two babies and note that, despite Goku's meager power level of 2, especially compared to Broly's power level of 10,000, he nevertheless had the feisty spirit of a typical Saiyan warrior due to his constant wailing, while expressing amusement on how Goku's crying even managed to cause Broly to cry slightly.
Saiyans have a natural affinity to control Ki energy, allowing them to generate very powerful energy blasts even at young ages. In Dragon Ball GT it is said that Saiyans and half-breeds possess a unique type of energy called "Saiya Power".
Also, any energy lost during a battle, will be completely restored, and, in some cases, multiplied, after a short time of resting.
Ancient Saiyans possess different energy from their present day counterparts, the evil ancient Saiyan Cumber was shown to have a corrupting aura and the ability to create shadow hands.
Hybrid Saiyans like Gohan, Beat, and Pan are shown to be able to manipulate their ki subconsciously without formal training though said abilities usually manifest when they are in danger. Examples include Gohan's Leave My Daddy Alone! and Hidden Potential techniques, Pan developed the ability to use Flight without formal training, and Beat could subconsciously use ki while guarding to cancel out simple Ki Blasts. Gohan and Goku Jr. are also known to subconsciously access their hidden potential through emotional distress particularly when enraged, though their power often fluctuates depending upon their emotions though with training they can learn to consciously and better control their energy.
Due to their natural ability to control their energy, and the massively increased gravity of their home planet, Saiyans possess the innate ability to fly at hypersonic speeds, with little, to no effort at all. Due to their superior Ki control, they're able to fly much more faster than normal humans, proven by Goten, when he completely outclassed Videl in their first day of flying training.
Pan, Gohan's daughter and a quarter Saiyan herself, was able to fly as a baby with no formal instruction.
Saiyans, naturally possess vast superhuman strength, far greater than that of Earthlings and other alien races, and are veritable fighting machines. They are capable of easily lifting ten times their own weight (before receiving Master Roshi's training, Goku was already able to lift Bulma's car at age 12).
The naturally high gravity of Planet Vegeta (10x that of Earth) develops their physical strength, making them incredibly strong at young ages. Even weaker Saiyans are capable of conquering most planets alone. Due to their insane levels of physical power, they are easily able to destroy mountains, islands, and potentially entire planets just with pure physical strength, especially in the Super Saiyan states. For example, during Goku's battle with Kid Buu, the planet they were fighting on was warping and contracting with each blow and would have destroyed it if not for the Sacred World of the Kai indestructible nature. God-like Saiyans, possess an astronomical level of physical strength, capable of crumbling apart the entire universe when clashing with another God. Broly a Legendary Super Saiyan displays strength that is high even by the Saiyan's standards as seen in his Wrathful and Full Power states where he could brutalize both Goku and Vegeta in their God forms with his own physical strength despite lacking any God-Ki. When Broly and Gogeta clashed they were capable of shattering a Dimension of Strange Swirling Lights with their blows.
Through tough training, Saiyans are able to reach new levels of power, and the more intense training and fights they go through, the stronger they become. If a Saiyan survives a near-death experience through extreme injury to the body, then, when the body recuperates, the Saiyan grows much stronger than they were previously, their body adapting to compensate for the damage dealt, essentially evolving their power, the more they fight. The duration of recovery does not seem to hinder this ability as Saiyans have healed through natural, technological and mystical means and still gained substantial increases in physical strength.
Saiyans put a heavy emphasis on strength and fighting ability when it comes to importance in their society. In fact, they will excommunicate Saiyans who do not show potential to assist in their violent ways, even alleged "royalty," such as Tarble.
Speed and Agility
Saiyans possess tremendous levels of superhuman speed, easily capable of breaking the sound barrier, even with their basic moves. They also have much faster reflexes than an average Human; reflexes so fast that they can avoid a bullet without any trouble at all, or even catch them with no harm. Their superhuman speed can easily be seen in their fighting skills; their movements occur in fractions of seconds which are not visible to average Human eyes, and even "super" humans, like Krillin, Tien or Yamcha, have trouble following up a Saiyan's speed.
Their agility is also substantial in their battles and training, they can easily perform immensely high jumps or acrobatics far more advanced than those of normal human beings, with no drawback or strain on their bodies. These movements can be improved by training, transformations, and other methods. These natural powers of speed and reflex make nearly all Saiyan hand-to-hand combat very fast. In the anime, the strongest and most powerful of Saiyans (especially those who can turn Super Saiyan), can easily move faster than the speed of light, and even King Kai, who can easily track Attack Ball's traveling at faster-than-light speeds, can't keep up with them.
Saiyans who have achieved the Super Saiyan God form and above, such as Goku and Vegeta, can even keep up with a God of Destruction's immense speed, and the likes of Dyspo, a being whose speed surpasses sound and light.
Durability and Endurance
Saiyans possess enormous amounts of superhuman durability, and are a remarkably resilient species, who refuse to be physically broken. Even as children, Saiyans are easily capable of taking on bullets (at least those belonging to small arms such as handguns and machine pistols), explosions or sharpened objects and come out relatively unharmed, and as even younger infants, are able to survive extreme head-trauma and stunt forces. However, their ability to resist bullets may have limits, as Bulma in the Japanese version of Blue, Black and Blue implied that Saiyan children can still be killed by higher-calibre bullets such as shotgun rounds. On a related note, Saiyan children were also capable of withstanding even being crushed, which was best demonstrated with Goku where he not only survived being flattened by a trick ceiling, but even managed to lift it off him, albeit with some effort.
However, as fully-developed adults, Saiyans possess immense levels of resistance to nearly all harm, and essentially, no Earthling-made weapon could possibly hurt them, and even most alien weapons cannot either. According to Dr. Gero, at age 24, Goku was already so tough, that even basic nuclear blasts and City-leveling explosions would not manage to kill his enemy, prompting the later to build up planet-destructing bombs on each one of his Androids, hoping that this last-effort method managed to kill Goku, in the case the Androids could not. Stronger or god-like Saiyans can survive this type. Even while unconscious and in their base form, a Saiyan is capable of surviving re-atmospheric reentries with no negative effect to their bodies.
When a Saiyan becomes a Super Saiyan, their durability, as well as their strength, increases massively, becoming tough enough to easily survive powerful energy beams, even to their faces, with no visible harm or scratch, and take most blunt forces against large amount of rock or solid matter, with no discomfort. God-like Saiyans are able to survive universe-clashing forces with essentially no harm, or even take planet-destroying finger-taps from Beerus, a God of Destruction with little issue.
However, they are not invincible, and substantially powerful forces and enemies can overcome a Saiyan's basic durability. But even if they are hurt, Saiyans not only also appear able to heal from injuries at a faster rate than normal human beings, but also have an extremely high tolerance to physical pain, and will only succumb to injuries if a massively high amount of bones are broken, also, they possess remarkable immune systems, making it very hard for them to become sick (in fact the only illness in the series shown to be capable bypassing a Saiyan's immune system is Heart Virus). If a Saiyan lets his guard, the most important part of their durability, gradually down, no matter how powerful, this will cause the Saiyan to become vulnerable to behind surprise attacks, and will take as much damage as a "super-human" could. God-like Saiyans have an even higher durability, and can survive star system-shattering energy attacks like Beerus' Sphere of Destruction, as demonstrated by Goku, but with extreme difficulty.
It is said by Vegeta that Saiyans are unable to survive in the vacuum of space, although they are capable of going to the upper levels of a planet's atmosphere, as seen when Goku fought Beerus, Bardock's final stand in the anime as well as Bardock - The Father of Goku, and when Goku and Vegeta were looking for Moro.
Saiyans are considered for the most part to be comparable in intelligence to humans. Goku's head trauma and sheltered childhood left him unenlightened about anything not concerning martial arts, though he gradually outgrows this as his teachers all stressed the values of brains over brawn. Due to a Saiyan's strength, their level of cunning is generally downplayed, unless their strength is below average, like Raditz. Perhaps as a byproduct of their speed and reflexes, Saiyans are also abnormally quick learners, able to process large amounts of information within a limited amount of time. This can be seen when Goku was able to use the Kamehameha after seeing it just once and Vegeta taught himself how to sense energy despite being reliant on scouters for most of his career. Despite being a race of barbarians, Saiyans have no trouble adapting to new technology. It is unknown if Saiyan aptitudes carry onto their hybrid children, as the intelligence of all Saiyan hybrids has been shown to be products of their upbringing (Gohan was privately tutored, Trunks grew up in a family of scientists etc.). However, a Saiyan's superhuman learning curve is seen time and time again throughout the series, such as Gohan being able to keep up with immense amounts of coursework in his private studies as a child despite his young age.
Saiyans also have very good memories, even from the time they were babies. This was evident when Raditz meets Goku and expects him to remember his brother and his mission only to discover Goku suffered from amnesia due to a severe concussion as an infant, with Goku implying that he did at least recall hitting his head around that time when Raditz asked him. Broly as well was able to remember Goku's Saiyan name and appearance despite them both being newborns the last time they met.
In Dragon Ball Legends, Ancient Saiyans like Shallot are shown to be somewhat more primitive than their modern counterparts, as demonstrated by the game's original protagonist Shallot, who is shown to be ignorant of technology, large cities, and concepts such Sensing Ki, and genetics. However its possible that his amnesia can account for some of this and/or can be attributed to his personality as his brother Giblet is demonstrated to be much more intelligent than his twin. However like Goku, Shallot is shown to be a quick learner as he learns how to sense Ki with just a little instruction from Kid Gohan and can learn various Special Move Arts from certain characters who have reached Friendship Rank 2. Additionally, Shallot is shown to be less naive than Goku, as shown by him thinking Bulma was complimenting him in an attempt to manipulate him to provide her free protection. He is also less trusting of evil people like Turles and Frieza and it requires an extremely skilled manipulator like Zahha who managed to convince Shallot he was a friend and ally, though this was only successful due to Zahha being behind Shallot's amnesia. However Shallot has more trouble with technology as he initially had trouble using the Communicator that Bulma supplied him with, which may be due to his originating from an early period of Saiyan history.
Saiyans are noted for having ravenous, and seemingly insatiable appetites. Due to their enormous strength and intense aura, the Saiyans' energy and nutritional intake requirements are a great deal higher than normal Earthlings. This heightened metabolism also benefits their physique, as despite their gluttonous eating, it is still much harder for Saiyans to grow obese or even suffer indigestion or cramps; in fact, it seems to improve their overall performance. They are often shown eating plate after plate of food, resulting in many dishes piling up. After the 21st World Martial Arts Tournament ended, while only 12 years old, Goku hastily consumed a 50 course meal (57 full-course meals in the English dub) and still wanted dessert. In Daizenshuu 4, it is stated that they have no particular favorite kind of food, although they appear to prefer meat over anything else. Saiyan hybrids can also show a high appetite, although it may appear later in life; Gohan only began showing such an appetite after he became a Super Saiyan. At times, their appetite seems to work against them: in his childhood, when Goku went for too long without something to eat, he became too weak to do much of anything.
In Dragon Ball Legends, the Ancient Saiyan Shallot also demonstrates an appetite not unlike modern Saiyans. In fact, while Shallot was initially cold towards Krillin and Yamcha even after they helped him defeat a Saibaman after he escaped from Legendary Super Saiyan Broly, after the pair tell Shallot he can eat and rest at the Capitol, Shallot quickly changes his tone and even thanks them, with Yamcha realizing where Shallot's priorities lay (presumably being reminded of Goku's appetite). Though Shallot is initially reluctant to eat Earth cuisine even after Jaco points out its pretty high quality on the galactic scale, due to the color, he notes it smells good. However after a single bite, Shallot notes it is the very tasty. Despite his amnesia, Shallot apparently remembers how hunt as he talks about hunting when the meal Bulma supplies him with isn't enough to curb his appetite. Shallot is also skilled at tracking, which he presumably utilizes while hunting. However Shallot isn't above calling out his fellow Saiyans such as when he admonishes Caulifla for eating the Earth Resistance's food supplies due to it causing trouble for Future Mai, though it is implied that he fails to see the hypocrisy in his statements.
Aging, lifespan and growth
According to the Daizenshuu, Saiyan's lifespan is about the same as an average Earthling (75 to 100 years, with longer exceptions), but keep in their peak health, performance, and appearance much longer. However, according to Akira Toriyama, their natural lifespan itself is longer than humans', but as a warrior race many of them die in battle, and by extension their general lifespan. In Dragon Ball Super, Saiyans are still young at the age of 80. As explained by Vegeta near the end of Dragon Ball Z, Saiyans maintain their prime they evolved into a natural warrior race, enabling them to fight longer. This is seen when Nappa, who was Vegeta's attendant when Vegeta was a child, remained in his prime and visibly unchanged (apart from his bald head) long after Vegeta has become an adult, but in actuality, Nappa is roughly 50 years old during his arrival on Earth. Chi-Chi complained of this in Dragon Ball GT when Goku was reduced to a child, pointing out that she was getting older faster than him (although this also attributes to the fact Goku spent a collective total of 8 years dead by then during which he did not age). This is again demonstrated in the GT finale when Pan is seen one hundred years later. Despite being well over a hundred years old and only quarter Saiyan, she remained strong and relatively healthy, appearing only in her early sixties with only grey hairs and minor wrinkles. In Dragon Ball Super: Broly, Paragus' black hair is shown to have become grey indicating that a male pure Saiyan's hair can turn grey as they age.
In terms of physical development, this differs by Saiyan as it does with Earthlings. Most full-blooded Saiyans appear to grow in spurt phases, as seen through Goku. Saiyans appear identical to that of a Earthling baby in their early years, although they are born with a full head of hair more often than Earthlings, but also appear to grow at somewhat slower rates. Goku at the age of 12 was actually about the same size as his future son Gohan (who is half-Earthling) would be at the age of 5. Bulma herself believed Goku to be that young when they first met, but was shocked to find out he was actually 12. By the age of 18, Goku had undergone his largest spurt phase; he became significantly taller and more muscular, going from half the size of Yamcha to nearly matching him three years later. General height and built once fully grown can still differ between Saiyans the same as Earthlings as Vegeta, who is five years older than Goku, is noticeably shorter and smaller overall. This is supported by Super Hero, in which Piccolo is surprised that Goten and Trunks had grown significantly since the last time he saw them. Gohan appears to be aware of the way Saiyans grow, as he tells Piccolo that they stay small for a long time before hitting a sudden growth spurt that brings about better fighting physiology.
Saiyans appear to undergo one final growth spurt between the ages of roughly 20 to 30, when the body seems to finalize its physical maturity. Growth in muscle mass can clearly be seen, with even some height gained. Goku and Vegeta are clear examples of this. Goku appears to have greater depth to the chest, neck, shoulders, and thighs, with other muscles increasing in size and definition after that. This can clearly be seen during the Frieza Saga and Androids Sagas: Goku appears more muscularly built than he did during the Vegeta Saga, as well as taller. Vegeta also makes a transition, appearing to even grow in height, as by the end of Dragon Ball Z, he was shorter than Bulma, but by Dragon Ball Super he was noticeably taller than her. In Dragon Ball Fusions, an elderly pure-blooded female Saiyan named Stabba is introduced. She is quite old as she has visible wrinkles and has long retired from active combat, though she decides to come out of retirement after hearing about the Timespace Tournament, as she couldn't resist the chance to fight against powerful opponents from across time and space. However, despite her aged appearance, Stabba remains energetic and retains her fighting strength.
Saiyans have a sexual reproduction system compatible with that of normal Humans, as they are able to produce fertile offspring together. This indicates that despite their vastly enhanced physiology, Saiyans have genes that are similar enough to a Earthling’s to be able to avoid debilitating genetic conditions that come with hybridization, allowing the resulting hybrids to be born perfectly healthy and normal. The mothers of the full-blooded Saiyans were never in the original manga, though there have been some mentions of them. When Raditz tells Goku about the destruction of their home planet in the manga/anime, he mentions that "their parents" died along with it. Their mother Gine was later revealed in Dragon Ball Minus. Also, at least in the anime, Nappa clearly states that he had a mother. Female Saiyans have been seen, including a female Saiyan holding a knife in her mouth shown in a trio of Saiyans when King Kai tells Goku about his ancestry, Bardock's comrade Fasha is a female, and a number of female Saiyans in a bar are shown in Bardock - The Father of Goku.
Based on Vegeta's initial disgust and animosity towards Gohan when he first learns about the half-breed's unusually high power level, it is strongly hinted that Saiyans were adamantly against reproducing with creatures of another race and bearing hybrids. As Vegeta states a hybrid's power would be too dangerous for even a full-blooded Saiyan to combat against, it seems the Saiyans were highly cautious of this and there is no record of any Saiyan procreating outside of the Saiyan race until Goku's marriage to Chi-Chi and the birth of Gohan. It is also possible the Saiyans viewed hybrids as abominations and insults to their race. However, it should be noted that Nappa suggested the idea they could repopulate the Saiyan race through reproducing with Earthlings to create hybrids, even suggesting that hybrid offspring had potential to become Super Saiyans, which was later proven correct by Gohan and his counterpart Future Gohan (as both Trunks & Future Trunks achieved it after their respective timelines' incarnation of Gohan). However, Vegeta rejected Nappa's suggestion outright, only to ironically end up in a relationship with Bulma that accidentally lead to the birth of Trunks (and Future Trunks in the case of Future Vegeta).
Due to being a warrior race, Saiyans prefer to artificially incubate their offspring. Even non-warriors like Gine kept baby Kakarot in an incubation chamber due to its convenience.
Given that their ability to reproduce fertile and stable offspring with humans with few noticeable physical differences between hybrids and full-blooded humans, then Saiyans must possess 23 chromosomes in their DNA.
Saiyan families appear to be far different to that of a traditional Earthling family; apart from the royal family of Vegeta, they are not particular about blood-relationships. Of the few (pure-blooded) Saiyan families seen, only Vegeta and his father have had close relationships, as well Broly and Paragus to some extent. Children are kept in pods as infants and monitored by doctors while their parents are usually occupied on mercenary missions. Even as infants, their natural strength and their Great Ape transformation means that they are capable of conquering planets like Earth single-handedly and so it is unlikely they spend much, if any time, with their parents or siblings. Notably, when Bardock is asked by his comrade Tora if he remembers what day his newborn son was born, he replies "No, but that was a long time ago." Fasha then goes on to say that it was the day before, and that he should go see him.
Saiyans do not have much of a concept of family, but they do tend to have close relationships with their friends and comrades however, with whom they do spend a great deal of time in battle. Bardock has a close relationship with his wife Gine however, which is apparently rare among Saiyans. Goku was able to have a close relationship with his family as a result of being raised as an Earthling since infancy. Also, in Vegeta's case, he was initially uninterested in his family due the comfortable nature on Earth conflicting with his Saiyan nature, but living on Earth for many years enabled him to reconcile with this, and he became more family-oriented. In contrast to the Saiyans of the Universe 7, the Saiyans of the Universe 6 seem to care for their families more, as shown by Cabba, wanting to protect his planet when Vegeta falsely threatened to destroy their planet. In Dragon Ball Minus, Bardock and Gine chose to send their son Kakarot to Earth to save his life as Bardock suspected Frieza planned to destroy the Saiyans. Gine informed Raditz of his brother's whereabouts though he, Nappa, Vegeta, and Frieza Force assumed Goku had been sent to invade Earth by the Saiyan Army, unaware his departure to Earth was unauthorized as Bardock and Gine had stolen a Attack Ball to send Goku off-world. Due to his refusal to join him and siding with the Earthlings, Raditz saw Kakarot as a disgrace to their family though he did lament that Goku would sacrifice himself for what he saw as low level trash, showing that he did value his brother's life in his own way.
Vegeta explained that all Saiyan men were strong willed and that they were genetically inclined to like strong willed women, which is the reason why they picked Earthling wives that were also strong willed.
Vegeta is shown to care for his father as a child, coming to his defense when Beerus was punishing King Vegeta for keeping the universe's most comfortable pillow for himself, that Beerus requested him to acquire for him only for King Vegeta to try to pass off the universe's second most comfortable one as the most comfortable. However, as he grew older, Vegeta acted as though he didn't care about his father likely due to him becoming more cold-hearted due to the influence of Frieza and as a way to cope with the loss of his race due to the Genocide of the Saiyans. Vegeta also rejected Nappa's suggestion they mate with Earthling females to rebuild their race and create a new Saiyan empire due to fearing the strength of said offspring would rival them. However, after Frieza's death, Vegeta slowly began a relationship with Bulma whom he conceived his first child Trunks with. However, Vegeta initially wanted nothing to do with the child and coldly refused to bother with protecting Bulma and Trunks when they were attacked by Dr. Gero, leading Future Trunks to admonish him for failing to protect his family. Before the birth of his son, Vegeta also refused to believe Future Trunks was a Saiyan due to his lack of black hair and was unaware of their relation until he heard Piccolo call him Trunks. Though he was largely dismissive of Future Trunks, he slowly came to care for his son's counterpart, to the point he vengefully attacked Cell when he killed Future Trunks. After Future Trunks returned to his timeline, Vegeta married Bulma and became a proper father to Trunks. Though he allowed Babidi to control him to fight his rival Kakarot, his love for his family won out and he sacrificed himself in an attempt to destroy Innocent Buu to protect his wife and son. He also blamed Goku for Trunks' death when he chose to rescue Mr. Satan and Dende when Kid Buu destroyed the Earth and was outraged to learn Goku had made a deal with Old Kai using a promise of a kiss from Bulma without seeking Vegeta and Bulma's approval. After the defeat of Kid Buu, Vegeta tries to spend quality time with his family and stays with Bulma during her pregnancy with their second child. Vegeta is shown to fret over his daughter to the point of angrily transforming into his Super Saiyan Blue form spontaneously when Mr. Satan and Yamcha make her cry. In Dragon Ball GT, he and Bulma share a strong bond due to Vegeta spoiling her.
Though King Vegeta saw Tarble as a disgrace due to him being determined a low class fighter due to his lack of aggression and ruthlessness, he chose to exile him and Vegeta is shown to get along with Tarble when they reunite as adults, though this is likely due to Vegeta's being more of a family man by this point. Tarble looks up to his older brother due to his mistaken belief that Vegeta was the one who defeated Frieza and gets along with his sister-in-law and nephew. Vegeta likewise is polite to his sister-in-law Gure, though he is caught off-guard to learn Tarble was married to the female Tech-Tech alien.
The twin brothers Shallot and Giblet from Dragon Ball Legends are shown to have been close and together sought to achieve the Super Saiyan God form in order to defeat the Evil Saiyans, hoping to succeed where their ancestor had failed. Historically they would also fail, and died out with the rest of the righteous Saiyans. However, during the Tournament of Time, Giblet forms an alliance with the Mastermind. It is eventually revealed that Giblet despises the current modern Saiyans due to them being descended from the Evil Saiyans that killed their ancestors and as a result seeks to commit genocide on the descendants of the Evil Saiyans in order to restore the "true" Saiyan way. However, Shallot who suffers amnesia upon entering the tournament where he becomes acquainted with several modern Saiyans from various periods as well as Cabba, Caulifla, & Kale of Universe 6. Similar to Goku's conflict with Raditz, Shallot later opposes his brother after recovering his memories after becoming a Super Saiyan God, with Giblet revealing that he too had achieved Super Saiyan God through unknown means resulting in a battle between the two Super Saiyan Gods. Giblet shows that the Super Saiyan Gods while generally righteous, can be driven to engage in morally questionable behavior such as seeking revenge on the descendants of enemies (with Giblet sees the modern Saiyans as being tainted by the blood of their ancestors), even to the point of commiting genocide and becoming abusive to their own family (as Giblet thrashes his amnesiac brother for his weakness). However after learning of Giblet's identity and his usage of the Dark Ki, Shallot suspects that Giblet is being manipulated. At certain points it is implied that the Mastermind has been manipulating Giblet even using his ability to rewrite a person's motives and desires. Through the Dark Ki he is able to create a dark persona within Giblet which tells Giblet that it is his true self before taking control over Giblet. However during the epic "battle of the Super Saiyan Gods" between Super Saiyan God Giblet and Super Saiyan God Shallot, Shallot is able to overpower his brother, which helps free Giblet from the influence of the false persona that was controlling him. However Giblet falls unconscious due to the strain of the battle and mental strain of breaking free. Ultimately, the Mastermind reveals himself to be Zahha who had captured the brothers, with Shallot's recurring memory of someone telling him to run, turning out to be Giblet telling Shallot to run from Zahha back when he first encountered the twins. Zahha reveals he is behind Shallot's amnesia and had helped foster Giblet's hatred for both Shallot and the modern Saiyans through a combination of memory alteration, subtle manipulation as the phantom Mastermind, and use of the Dark Ki. As a result, Giblet's evil actions seems to be the result of brainwashing and manipulation. This may explain how he was still able to achieve Super Saiyan God, as deep down he was truly a righteous Saiyan with his evil actions being the result of brainwashing and the Mastermind's influence.
Due to their similar physiology, Saiyans and Earthlings are capable of interbreeding. While this was always possible, it became necessary for the survival of the Saiyan race when all the female Saiyans were exterminated. The resulting offspring generally possess the same enhanced strengths of the Saiyans, developing their abilities far more easily than Earthlings, but lack the same drive and instinct for combat. Hybrid Saiyans, due to genetic reasons, can be born without a tail, like Goten or Trunks  (Gohan is the only Saiyan-hybrid in the manga/anime that is shown with a Saiyan tail), and if they do, they have an extraordinary potential. Hybrid Saiyans possess a greater potential to become Super Saiyans than pure-blood Saiyans, but it is unclear how many generations removed from their Saiyan ancestor a hybrid can be before the transformation becomes unavailable to them. This is principally called into question because of Pan's supposed inability to transform as she is only quarter Saiyan, yet in the TV special Dragon Ball GT: A Hero's Legacy, descendants of Goku and Vegeta are able to turn Super Saiyan, despite their Saiyan heritage being even more diluted than Pan's.
It is unclear if all hybrids possess a naturally greater potential than their Saiyan parents, but shown evidences suggest that they do. In the Japanese version of the Saiyan saga, Nappa suggested to Vegeta that they mate with the female Earthlings to produce a new powerful Saiyan race but Vegeta refused because he feared a half-breed's power would become too dangerous. Gohan repeatedly demonstrated a hidden power that, when harnessed, made him more powerful than even Goku or Vegeta. When he and Goku trained to battle Cell, Gohan not only caught up to his father, but surpassed him even before making his Super Saiyan 2 transformation; he is also noted to be the youngest Saiyan to reach that form, at the age of 11 (9 in the manga). Also, he, Trunks, and Goten were able to make the transformation to Super Saiyan at age 8 and 7 respectively, far younger ages than their fathers and Gohan, with Trunks and Goten showing such ease at obtaining the first form that they treated it almost like a "child's play thing" (as stated by Vegeta in the Funimation dub). Goten and Trunks' fusion as Gotenks shows much, much more ease in obtaining even the final form, entering the Hyperbolic Time Chamber whilst being unable to make the first transformation. In no more than about a week in the room, they emerged as a fused Super Saiyan 3. Vegeta also claimed upon his arrival on Earth with Nappa that Gohan's potential was higher than a normal Saiyan's because of his mixed blood.
A hybrid Saiyan's potential may be held in check by the fact they lack the same desire for combat as pure Saiyans, and thus tend not to train as much, in times of peace, as a pure Saiyan would. For example, Gohan actually became less powerful during the seven years between his battle with Cell and the emergence of Buu, allowing Goku and Vegeta to catch up to and then surpass him, due to him having not trained enough. It is also during this time that both Goku and Vegeta make the transformation to Super Saiyan 2 as Gohan did, with Goku surpassing it to ascend to Super Saiyan 3, the last form displayed in the manga and in the Dragon Ball Z anime.
Further, it is unknown if quarter Saiyans, such as Pan, have a lesser potential than half Saiyans or pure-blooded Saiyans due to their further diluted heritage or if their comparative weakness, exhibited by Pan, is simply the result of lacking the Saiyan drive to train coupled with growing up in peaceful times. Pan as a quarter Saiyan was able to fly as a baby only a few months old without any training, but it is unknown if this is because of factors like her upbringing, and Gohan's potential being greater than Goku's.
In Dragon Ball Fusions, non-Earthling Saiyan hybrids are introduced such as Mint a female Saiyan hybrid who is 1/4 Offworlder (a classification which includes various races native to other dimensions such as Other World and Demon Realm) and Nenjo a male Saiyan hybrid who is also 1/4 Offworlder. Additionally Shalot is a female Saiyan hybrid who is 1/4 Earthling (making her the opposite of Pan who is 1/4 Saiyan).
In Super Dragon Ball Heroes: World Mission, Beat is revealed to be the Earthling Saiyan hybrid descendant of Goku, explaining his ability to subconsciously use ki defensively without formal training, competitiveness, and affinity for Goku's SDBH cards. However, his percentage of Saiyan blood is unknown and it is unknown whether he is descended from Goten or Gohan's family lines, though as his mother strongly resembles Chi-Chi, he is apparently maternally descended from both Chi-Chi and Goku. Through his pure Saiyan Hero Avatar, Beat is able to achieve Super Saiyan, Super Saiyan 2, Super Saiyan 3, Super Saiyan God, and Super Saiyan Blue. Like other Earthling-Saiyan hybrids, Beat is able to achieve Super Saiyan form without the use of a Saiyan Avatar, as shown when Beat as Great Saiyaman 4 transforms into Super Saiyan Beat after becoming enraged at Legendary Super Saiyan Broly after he seemingly kills Note (in reality she was simply knocked unconscious). Additionally during the final battle with Sealas (Fused), Beat is able to achieve Super Saiyan Blue after Note, Frost, Kagyu, Kabra, Chamel, Zen, and Nico transfer their power into him in a manner reminiscent of the Super Saiyan God ritual, though in this case six Hero Switch compatible Earthlings transferring their power into a Hero Switch compatible Earthling-Saiyan hybrid, who achieves their natural Super Saiyan Blue form instead of Super Saiyan God. Like pure Earthling SDBH players, he can utilize the Hero Switch to transform into any Male Saiyan, Female Saiyan, Android/Bio-Android, Frieza Clan, Namekian, Majin, Supreme Kai, and Dark Demon God Avatar due to game mechanics in World Mission, though Male Saiyan is he default selectable race. When using his natural Super Saiyan and Super Saiyan Blue forms, Beat's Hero Avatar and Great Saiyaman Suit are automatically deactivated. In Super Dragon Ball Heroes, after achieving Ultimate Class-up Sign, Hero Avatars gain access to Ultra Instinct Sign, though they retain their Super God Class-up attire.
Hybrid Saiyans, particularly Earthling-based hybrids, also might inherit more degenerative aspects from their non-Saiyan heritage which would impact their overall potential. This is implied with Gohan around the time Cell Max was activated, where he fumbled a senzu bean tossed by Piccolo and accidentally knocked it into a ravine largely because he could barely see it coming without his glasses.
Main article: S-Cells Saiyans possess S-Cells within their bodies, S-Cells are what allow a Saiyan to become a Super Saiyan, however most Saiyans do not have many S-Cells within their bodies. Any Saiyan can become a Super Saiyan, however they require a large amount of S-Cells in order to take on the form, Saiyans who have a gentle spirit gain more S-Cells (though they cannot gain enough to go Super Saiyan through a gentle nature alone) and when a Saiyan increases their battle power they steadily gain more S-Cells. Additionally a gentler environment that is easier to live in (such as Planet Earth and their native home planet Sadala compared to Planet Vegeta) makes S-Cell production increase. Once the Saiyan has enough S-Cells, a feeling such as strong anger or sadness can transform a Saiyan into a Super Saiyan, once a Saiyan has achieved the form they can transform into it any time by focusing their energy into their back to make it tingle. A Saiyan who has a very large battle power can turn Super Saiyan without needing a trigger, due to their tremendous amount of S-Cells (an example being Caulifla). Saiyan offspring will inherit S-Cells from their parents, this is why Goten, Trunks, and the hybrid clone Cell were able to become Super Saiyans so easily.
As evidenced in Dragon Ball, Saiyans have a very keen sense of smell. When Goku and Krillin are looking for the rock that Roshi had thrown into the jungle, Goku is able to smell the rock which had Roshi's scent. Goku even claims his sense of smell is similar to that of a dog's (which is far superior to that of a human). This later worked against him when he met Bacterian; because Bacterian had never bathed or brushed his teeth in his life, the smell was so horrible that Goku nearly passed out. Another instance is when he is able to smell Roshi when Goku and his friends are searching for him at the 21st World Martial Arts Tournament. Goku also uses this ability to track down the thief that steals his belongings in the episode Pilaf and the Mystery Force. Goku also partly used his sense of smell to detect Bulma's arrival after arriving at her home with help from a Police Officer, mentioning it smelled like her when sensing her arrival via a Jet-Bike, much to the officer's shock. Saiyans also have powerful sense of touch and hearing. They are very alert to vibrations through the ground and shifts in the air, enabling them to instinctively react to incoming danger from these subtle signals. This allows them to easily fight their opponents in absolute dark or even blinded, as Goku did against Yakon and Gohan did against Lavender respectively.
In Dragon Ball Xenoverse 2, Broly is able to use his keen sense of smell to detect even faint traces of Goku's scent as he has apparently committed his nemesis' scent to memory as an alternative way of tracking him (as Goku is capable of suppressing his ki and Broly is incapable of sensing Godly ki). He is even shown to detect similarities between the scents of close relatives, as he notes similarities between the scents of Raditz, Bardock, Gohan, and Future Gohan to Goku's. It is also implied that this sense of smell, combined with his shattered sanity, was also part of the reason why he mistook Goten and Gohan for Goku in Dragon Ball Z: Broly - Second Coming.
In Dragon Ball Legends, the Ancient Saiyan Shallot is shown to possess a heightened olfactory sense superior to even modern Saiyans like Goku and Broly, due to his ability to determine a fighter's power level via their scent alone. Shallot can also use his nose to track Red Ribbon Army Androids via their scent with him noting that mechanical Androids have artificial scents due to the artificial materials used in their construction. This makes him one of the only beings capable of tracking Androids that lack ki signatures. Additionally, during his first encounter with New Cell, he notes that he has the scents of Frieza, Goku, Vegeta, and Nappa who's genes had been used in the Bio-Android's creation. Shallot also notes that while Goku Black has Goku's body, he has Zamasu's scent. Additionally he is able to determine that Turles isn't Goku via his scent. Shallot often uses his sense of smell to detect potential dangers especially when he lacks the ability to Sense Ki normally. According to Jaco, "Sensing Ki" is a technique that is foreign to Saiyan culture entirely, explaining Shallot's reliance on his ability to determine power levels via scent and the Saiyan Army's reliance on Scout-Scopes and Scouters, as Shallot, Goku and Vegeta only developed the ability to sense Ki after coming to Earth, with Goku acquiring the ability after having his potential unlocked by the Ultra Divine Water and refined said ability during his training under Mr. Popo and Kami, while Vegeta developed the ability as a result of his battle's with the Dragon Team, and Shallot learns how to sense ki after only a little instruction from Kid Gohan, once he and Zahha became aware of Shallot's inability to sense Ki (Jaco is not surprised due to Ki Sense being foreign to Saiyan culture).
Saiyans also seem to have keen eyesight. When Goku and Bulma see Turtle returning with Master Roshi on his back, Goku is able to clearly make them out at a distance when Bulma could not, with Bulma even remarking, "It's like you've got super vision or something."
Their tail also grants a Saiyan special transformations; a great metamorphosis into a giant ape beast with tremendous power when looking at a full moon. The Saiyan grows incredibly in size and tenfold in strength while drastically changing in appearance. If the tail is removed, this ability is lost. In this state, a Saiyan will generally lose most if not all control of themselves, with aggressiveness reaching its peak, causing them to lost all rationality to primal instinct. However, some Saiyans who have advanced enough (i.e. Prince Vegeta) are able to contain this heightened ferocity, allowing them to retain their individuality and rationality to perform in battle as normal. Additionally some Saiyans are capable of retaining partial control over themselves allowing them to avoid attacking allies and/or family, while focusing their aggression against their enemies as shown by Great Ape Bardock and Great Ape Gohan. In Xenoverse, Great Ape Bardock destroys the Power Ball created by Vegeta that allows Bardock to transform, inorder to prevent the time displaced Villainous Mode Broly from transforming into Great Ape Broly.
Though normally a tail is required access the transformation, it is possible for Saiyans to transform even if their tail is removed, however they require the use of a Blutz Wave Generator which will cause them to transform, causing their tail to regrow briefly while in their transformed state, as shown by Vegeta in Dragon Ball GT. As the Saiyans of Universe 6 lost their tails through the process of evolution they are presumably incapable of transforming into Great Apes (it is unknown if they would be capable of transforming via the use of a Blutz Wave Generator like the Saiyans of Universe 7).
By managing to access the power of the Great Ape without taking on the form, a Saiyan takes on the Wrath State.
The most powerful ability of a normal Saiyan, however, is the ability to drastically augment their speed, strength and energy by transforming into a Super Saiyan. The ability is rare and difficult to achieve normally, but gives the Saiyan unbelievable enhancements to their normal abilities. Saiyans possess several Super Saiyan transformations, each different in appearance and the power they provide. For the majority of the Super Saiyan forms, the Saiyans muscle mass increases slightly, their irises turn bluish-green and their hair turns golden in color. There are additional transformations beyond Super Saiyan, and variations thereon.
As shown by Cabba's Super Saiyan transformation during his match with Vegeta in the Tournament of Destroyers, the Saiyans of Universe 6 are capable of achieving this form in the same manner as the Saiyans of Universe 7.
When used by a heroic ancient Saiyan, the form is identical to the modern day Super Saiyan - though it possess a golden tail (which is not always portrayed as a trait of a modern Saiyan). The ancient Saiyan Shallot also displayed a unique angered state with black Super Saiyan-like hair and red eyes. When used by an evil ancient Saiyan, the Super Saiyan form exhibits differences from those of a present day Super Saiyan; under Saiyan Cumber's utilization the forms retained his red and black aura and both his pupils and irises were present. Additionally, when utilized by Cumber, the Super Saiyan 3 form did not appear to greatly increase the length of his hair. Additionally Cumber proved to be able to access the full power of Super Saiyan 3.
Super Saiyan God
Through several different methods a Saiyan can ascend to godhood and achieve the Super Saiyan God form, the most notable being a sacred ritual involving the transfer of ki from five righteous Saiyans to a sixth Saiyan as host. Attaining these forms is quite difficult and only three Saiyans are known to have ever accomplished it - with only two retaining the power. These forms possess Godly ki.
Retaining the godly power also causes the user's normal forms to become more powerful than before, and also gifts them with the God-like Saiyan state, a state which utilizes the power of Super Saiyan God without a physical change in appearance. A Saiyan can also transform into a Super Saiyan God at will if they retain the godly power.
A Saiyan with the power of Super Saiyan God who transforms into a Super Saiyan becomes a Super Saiyan Blue.
Main article: Evil Saiyan
Saiyans can take on an empowered state known as Evil Saiyan. This form grows the user's hair to the same length as a Super Saiyan 3 - but keeps it it's natural color. Aside from an increase in power, Saiyans using this form possess an Evil Aura which has special properties and numerous utilities.
Saiyans are capable of mixing their Super Saiyan forms with their other non-Super Saiyan states in order to achieve powerful hybrid states. This has shown to be possible by mixing the standard Super Saiyan form with either Great Ape or Super Saiyan God.
Super Saiyan God Super Saiyan
Once a Saiyan masters the divine power of Super Saiyan God, by transforming from a Saiyan with the power of Super Saiyan God into the Super Saiyan form, they can access a new more powerful transformation called Super Saiyan Blue, more descriptively known as "Super Saiyan God Super Saiyan".
When a Saiyan breaks through their normal limits, they can achieve the power beyond Super Saiyan Blue known as Super Saiyan Blue Evolved.
When a saiyan is taken by the Evil Aura from an Evil Saiyan they'll take berserk transformations that depend on what form they are when corrupted. Super Saiyans 1 and 2 will turn into Super Saiyan (Berserk) while Super Saiyans Blue will turn into Super Saiyan Blue (Berserk).
When a saiyan manages to overwhelm the evil aura and turn it into their own power, they will take the Super Saiyan Blue (Controlled Berserk) form which will also allow the control of the evil aura like the evil saiyans do.
A Saiyan who possesses an actual status as a deity takes on the Super Saiyan Rosé form instead of the ordinary Super Saiyan Blue.
Later, Crimson also shows a new transformation which is the last level of the Super Saiyan Rosé line known as Super Saiyan Rosé Full Power.
Golden Great Ape
By combining Great Ape and Super Saiyan, a Saiyan becomes a Golden Great Ape. Their offensive capacities have become much greater, and their rage is even more intense than the standard Great Ape's. While in the Golden Great Ape state, the power and strength of a Saiyan increase extraordinarily.
The Super Saiyan 4 form is a unique transformation attained through control of the Golden Great Ape form. Despite being called a "Super Saiyan" it is not part of the main Super Saiyan line of transformations.
By achieving a power beyond their limits in Super Saiyan 4 form, a Saiyan will be enhanced further into a Ultra-full-power Saiyan 4.
While evil ancient Saiyans have been shown capable of taking on the Golden Great Ape form, they have not displayed the ability to become Super Saiyan 4 after gaining control over their Golden Great Ape form.
Saiyans have an inborn need to fight. Most Saiyans will spend their lives training to become stronger so that they can prove themselves in battle. When Frieza hired the Saiyans as his planet pirates, he knew of their amazing fighting skills and used that to his advantage. However, Frieza began to notice how powerful the Saiyans were becoming and began to fear that one day one of them would overwhelm him as the most powerful being in the universe. This eventually lead to Frieza's destruction of Planet Vegeta and all the Saiyans on it. Saiyans like Goku and Vegeta are frequently seen training and improving their fighting skills to keep up with each other's skills and the appearance of new, more powerful foes. After battles, injured Saiyans are placed inside Medical Machines by doctors of the Galactic Frieza Army. The healed soldier can then immediately return to the battlefield.
Many of the Saiyan and Saiyan/Human hybrids that appear throughout the series possess extreme fighting potential. It is also very common for them to develop the ability to transform into Super Saiyans at childhood, thought to be particularly likely when the hybrid's Saiyan parent had achieved the transformation prior to conception.
A Saiyan who achieves a level of power at the level of gods becomes a "God-like Saiyan".
Main article: Battle Armor
As a warrior race, the Saiyans would commonly wear protective armor consisting of a form-fitting body suit and battle armor. It was extremely light yet durable, able to protect from most attacks. At the same time, it is extremely flexible, able to stretch out so far without losing any of its integrity, enabling to remained clothed while turning into a Great Ape, moving about unhindered, and likewise return to normal size once the Saiyan shrinks back to their base form.
As noted by Vegeta, Universe 7 Saiyan Armor originally looked very similar to the Universe 6 Saiyan armor, possessing a gladiator-like design. However, after they were conscripted into the Galactic Frieza Army, like most other members, they began wearing a remodeled version that consists of a body suit with chest-protection. Newer models would have large pads on the shoulders, on the hips, and/or above the pelvic.
Saiyans have small space-pods that are only big enough for one person sitting down. When more than one person is sent to a planet, each warrior has a pod to themselves, who fly alongside each other in a group. It is unknown what fuel the space pods use, and there is no visible exhaust area for the fuel's waste to be expelled from (though when they fly they have an energy aura around them). However, the computers operating the pods seem to be very sophisticated, and can even change course in space, despite there being no visible means of doing so (in the real world, spaceships must either slingshot around a large gravity source, such as the Moon, or must have some object to push themselves away from, per the Third Law of Motion, "For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction"). The passenger appears to be in stasis during travel, but upon reaching a destination air is pumped into the pod, reviving the occupant.
In the Namek Saga, Dr. Brief was able to obtain the space pod that Goku arrived at the planet in as a baby, and was able to use reverse-engineering to build a bigger spaceship, so that Goku would have room to train in on his way to Namek. In an interview, Akira Toriyama said that the Space Pods are uncomfortable. In Dragon Ball Minus, it shows Bardock and a comrade flying in an unusually large Space Pod, enough for both to be inside of it.
Having become a natural-born race of warriors, Saiyans are shown to be very resilient and adaptive. As they continue battling, their minds and bodies continue to adapt and improve from the experience. To which, they instinctively learn from their mistakes and become more accustomed to the adversity before him. Even more, Saiyans are shown able to recover from injuries much faster than humans. Also as their bodies recover and adapt from the injuries, their bodies will grow considerably stronger than before, a literal example of the saying "That which does not kill me only makes me stronger". This power increase is known as Saiyan Power.
While the Saiyans from Universe 7 have not changed much morphologically during their evolution. The Saiyans from the Universe 6 have changed somewhat morphologically, losing their tails as a physical trait (though they obviously lost them quite a while ago).
List of Saiyans
In addition to the name "Saiyan" being an anagram of the Japanese word for vegetable, most pure-blooded Saiyans in the series also have names with vegetable puns, either in English or Japanese. Furthermore, the Saiyan Royals are keeping in line with this, simply named Vegeta(ble) and (Vege)Tarble.
- Bardock (Father of Raditz and Goku, he was killed by Frieza or sent to the past)
- Future Bardock (Father of Future Goku, he was killed by Future Frieza and sent to Other World)
- Xeno Bardock (Father of Xeno Goku, he fought Frieza during the Genocide of the Saiyans but was abducted and turned into the Masked Saiyan by the Dark Empire, though was later freed by the Time Patrol which he later joined becoming subordinate to Chronoa alongside his son, grandsons, great-granddaughter, and descendant Beat)
- Warrior in Black (An incarnation of Bardock whose timeline of origin is unknown)
- Beets (A non-combatant Saiyan in Broly, he was killed by Paragus)
- Borgos (A large balding member of Team Bardock, he is killed by Team Dodoria)
- Broly (DBS) (The Legendary Super Saiyan of the Universe 7, son of Paragus and main antagonist of Dragon Ball Super: Broly)
- Broly (The Legendary Super Saiyan, son of Paragus and the main villain of Dragon Ball Z: Broly - The Legendary Super Saiyan and Broly - Second Coming. He was killed by the Family Kamehameha of Gohan, Goten and the spirit of Goku. He eventually returned thanks to the machinations of demons and eventually went on to achieve an even higher level of power)
- Fasha (The only female member of Team Bardock (after Gine retired), she is killed by Dodoria's Elite)
- Gine (Mother of Raditz and Goku, and former member of Team Bardock)
- Goku (The main protagonist whose original Saiyan name is Kakarot. He is killed by sacrificing himself to kill Raditz, and years later to defeat Cell. Now training under Whis, he is one of the only currently god-like Saiyans. Son of Bardock and Gine)
- Goku Black (The Goku who existed in the original, unaltered present (Main) timeline, whose body was stolen by the Zamasu from the original, unaltered present timeline using the Super Dragon Balls)
- Crimson-Masked Saiyan (A version of Goku Black whose fate was changed due to Fu's intervention)
- King Vegeta (King of the Saiyans and father of Vegeta and Tarble. He is killed by Frieza)
- King Vegeta's Majordomo (Servant of the Saiyan Royal Family)
- Leek (Bardock's mission partner)
- Moroko (A male Saiyan scientist in Broly)
- Nappa (A large bald Saiyan who was Vegeta's partner and General of the Saiyan army, he is killed twice by Vegeta)
- Future Nappa (Nappa's future counterpart who was Future Vegeta's partner and General of the Saiyan Army, who like his counterpart is killed by Future Vegeta)
- Nion (A female scientist in Broly. Theorizes Broly may be the Legendary Super Saiyan which is later proven true)
- Onio (A fat Saiyan that appears in the self-parody manga, Nekomajin)
- Paragus (DBS) (The father of Broly and the tertiary antagonist of Dragon Ball Super: Broly. he was killed by Frieza so his son can awaken his true power)
- Raditz (Brother of Goku, he is killed by Piccolo)
- Scarface (A short balding Saiyan seen only in the pendulum room during filler of the DBZ anime)
- Shorty (A large muscular Saiyan seen only in the pendulum room during filler of the DBZ anime)
- Shugesh (A big overweight member of Team Bardock. He is killed by Team Dodoria)
- Tarble (Vegeta's younger brother who has a lack of fighting spirit)
- Taro (An old comrade of Bardock's)
- Tora (A tall masculine member of Team Bardock, he is killed by Dodoria)
- Turles (Main villain of Dragon Ball Z Movie #3: The Tree of Might. He look a lot like Goku and was the Leader of Turles Crusher Corps. He was killed by Goku)
- Xeno Turles (An incarnation of Turles who merged with a Dark Dragon Ball. Leader of Turles Crusher Corps)
- Vegeta (Goku's greatest rival and the prince of all Saiyans, he is killed twice by Frieza and once by sacrificing himself against Majin Buu. Training under Whis, he is one of the only remaining Saiyans to reach the realm of gods, and the only one in the royal bloodline to ever reach that level)
- Zorn (One of King Vegeta's subjects)
- Saiyan Army (The military force employed by the Saiyans)
- Kili Enhanced Great Ape (A powerful Saiyan who was enhanced by and works for the Time Breakers)
- Dragon Ball Fusions Saiyans:
- Bukha (Evil Saiyan who went berserk on some planets)
- Rhubub (Saiyan assassin)
- Jagamo (Saiyan guard captain on another planet)
- Cissito (A young Saiyan kid)
- Zukini (Saiyan warrior trainer)
- Binas: (Saiyan who became effeminate due to peer pressure)
- Biwala (Saiyan who has strained under an Offworlder)
- Soga (Young Saiyan who lives on Earth)
- Zemma (Barbaric Saiyan)
- Paprika (Friend of Pinich)
- Garatz (Hot-blooded Saiyan. Nazz is his daughter)
- Rakyo (Old warrior who excels at sword fighting)
- Heiya (Lazy Saiyan)
- Lomen (Kenpo master who is close to retirement)
- Racyoh (Samurai trained Saiyan)
- Mibatz (Saiyan with pyrokinetic abilities)
- Gowry (Saiyan mercenary)
- Tyber (Galactic Patrolman)
- Goyan (Crafty Saiyan)
- Kress (Saiyan boxer who lives on Earth)
- Quillin (Deceptive Saiyan)
- Huki (Kind hearted support based Saiyan)
- Sage (Strong low-class Saiyan who has invaded many planets)
- Vasabi (Saiyan who possess magical arts)
- Plauto (Gentle Saiyan who quit being a soldier)
- Leganon (Saiyan who works as a businessman on Earth)
- Yashimo (Saiyan who seeks the powers of Majin and Demons)
- Zibar (Saiyan who was forced to attend high school on Earth by his parents)
- Kalif (Elite female Saiyan)
- Stabba (Old Saiyan who is skilled at kenpo)
- Sesamy (Believes themselves to be the Legendary Saiyan. Can become a Super Saiyan)
- Zysa (Strong housewife who has tamed her Saiyan husband)
- Nira (Physically strong female Saiyan)
- Chokly (Girl who dresses like a boy)
- Ruccola (Girl who is obsessed with fashion, especially Earth's, has removed her tail)
- Narmis (Arrogant, gets a crush on people who defeat her)
- Nazz (Daughter of Garatz)
- Kiclee (Girl who admires Super Saiyans)
- Prika (Love training)
- Yunaly (Daughter of the CEO of a Saiyan conglomerate on another planet)
- Lisee (Fast and chic Saiyan)
- Cumber (An Evil Saiyan from the past that once battled a Super Saiyan God (logically the first one) and was later brought to the Prison Planet by Fu using the Dragon Balls)
- Shallot (A Saiyan from the past that had his memories erased and was brought to the Tournament of Time by Zahha along with his twin brother)
- Giblet (A Saiyan from the past that was brought to the Tournament of Time by Zahha to be manipulated to kill Shallot and all Saiyans he could find)
- Yamoshi (The first ever Saiyan to turn into a Super Saiyan. He fought to stop evil from controlling his planet but ended up defeated and killed by the Evil Saiyans, even as a spirit, he went across the universe and helped create the Super Saiyan God)
- Super Saiyan God (The first Saiyan to become Super Saiyan God through the ritual with the help of Yamoshi's spirit and his 5 righteous Saiyan comrades. Eventually the transformation wore off leading to his and his allies' death)
- Skwash (Champion of an ancient Saiyan tournament. Also, a Super Saiyan who can utilize the Kaio-ken technique and can combine the two without dying)
Universe 6 Saiyans
- King Sadala (The ruler of Sadala)
- Cabba (A Saiyan from Universe 6)
- Caulifla (A Saiyan from Universe 6 and Renso's sister)
- Kale (A Legendary Saiyan from Universe 6)
- Renso (Cabba's former captain and brother of Caulifla.)
- Sadala Army (The military force employed by the Saiyans from Universe 6)
- Bio-Broly (Universe 6)
- Paragus (Universe 6)
- Gohan – 1/2 Saiyan, Eldest son of Goku
- Trunks – 1/2 Saiyan, Eldest Son of Vegeta
- Goten – 1/2 Saiyan, Youngest son of Goku
- Xeno Goten - 1/2 Saiyan, Son of Xeno Goku
- Pan – 1/4 Saiyan, Daughter of Gohan and Granddaughter of Goku
- Xeno Pan 1/4 Saiyan, Daughter of Xeno Gohan and Granddaughter of Xeno Goku
- Bulla – 1/2 Saiyan, Daughter of Vegeta
- Goku Jr. – 1/64 or 1/16 Saiyan, Grandson of Pan and Great-Great-Grandson of Goku
- Bulma Leigh – Unknown percentage, descendant of Vegeta
- Vegeta Jr. – Unknown percentage, descendant of Vegeta
- Beat's Grandfather - Unknown percentage, descendant of Goku
- Beat's Mother - Unknown percentage, descendant of Goku
- Beat - Unknown percentage, descendant of Goku
- Future Zamasu - Future Zamasu and Goku Black do not defuse properly in the Dragon Ball Super manga, resulting in their cells becoming one, as both possess the same soul. Future Zamasu thus, inherits Black's Saiyan cells and possesses the ability to transform into the Super Saiyan Rosé form upon transforming into Fused Zamasu.
- Fin - Majin who is part-Saiyan in his Dark Gogeta form.
- Mint - A female Saiyan hybrid who is 1/4 Offworlder.
- Nenjo - Saiyan who is 1/4 Offworlder.
- Mint - Saiyan who is 1/4 Offworlder.
- Shalot - Saiyan who is 1/4 Earthling.
- Gogeta (Goku and Vegeta via the Fusion Dance, called Veku when the two Saiyans fused incorrectly; Name: Goku + Vegeta)
- Gokule (Goku and Mr. Satan via the Potara fusion earrings; Uncensored Name (Gotan): Goku + Mr. Satan; Censored Name (Gokule): Goku + Hercule)
- Gotenks (Goten and Trunks via the Fusion Dance; Name: Goten + Trunks)
- EX Gotenks (Goten and Trunks via EX-Fusion)
- Xeno Gotenks (Xeno Goten and Xeno Trunks via the Fusion Dance; Name: Xeno Goten + Xeno Trunks'
- Xeno Vegeks (Xeno Vegeta and Xeno Trunks via the Potara fusion earrings; Name: Xeno Vegeta + Xeno Xeno)
- Vegenks (Vegeta and Future Trunks via EX-Fusion; Name: Vegeta + Future Trunks)
- Vegito (Vegeta and Goku via the Potara fusion earrings; Name: Vegeta + Kakarotto)
- Xeno Vegito (Xeno Vegeta and Xeno Goku via the Potara fusion earrings; Name: Xeno Vegeta + Xeno Kakarotto)
- Fused Zamasu (Goku Black and Future Zamasu via the Potara fusion earrings)
- Kefla (Kale and Caulifla via the Potara fusion earrings)
- EX Trunks (Kid Trunks and Future Trunks via EX-Fusion)
- EX Gohanks (Teen Gohan and Kid Trunks via EX-Fusion; Name: Gohan + Trunks)
- Xeno Gohanks (Xeno Gohan and Xeno Trunks via Fusion Dance; Name: Xeno Gohan + Xeno Trunks')
- Future Gohanks (Future Gohan and Future Trunks via Fusion Dance; Name: Future Gohan + Future Trunks)
- Barlot (Goku and Bardock via EX-Fusion; Name: Bardock + Kakarotto)
- Bulpan (Pan and Bulla via EX-Fusion; Name: Bulla + Pan)
- Colohan (Piccolo and Gohan via EX-Fusion; Name: Piccolo + Gohan)
- Gorilin (Kid Goku and Krillin via EX-Fusion; Name: Goku + Krillin)
- Gorus (Goku and Beerus via EX-Fusion; Name: Goku + Beerus)
- Karoly (Goku and Broly via EX-Fusion; Name: Kakarrot + Broly)
- Kuhan (Kid Goku and Teen Gohan via EX-Fusion; Name: Goku + Gohan)
- Pandel (Pan and Videl via EX-Fusion; Name: Pan + Videl)
- Natz (Nappa and Raditz via the Fusion Dance; Name: Nappa + Raditz)
- Rappa (Raditz and Nappa via EX-Fusion; Name: Raditz + Nappa)
- Ginyuman (Gohan and Captain Ginyu via EX-Fusion; Name: Ginyu + Saiyaman)
- Great Jaco (Gohan and Jaco via EX-Fusion; Name: Great Saiyaman + Jaco)
- Great Satanman (Gohan and Mr. Satan via EX-Fusion; Name: Great Saiyaman + Mr. Satan)
- Great Saiyaman 12 (Gohan and Videl via EX-Fusion; Name: Great Saiyaman 1 + Great Saiyaman 2)
- Jacunks (Future Trunks and Jaco via EX-Fusion; Name: Jaco + Trunks)
- Ultra Tekka (Kid Goku, Goten, Trunks, Tekka, and Pan via Five-Way Fusion)
- Ultra Pinich (Pinich, Frieza, Cell, Piprika, and Wanta via Five Way Fusion)
- Pinita (Vegeta and Pinich via EX-Fusion; Name: Pinich + Vegeta)
- Yamta (Vegeta and Yamcha via EX-Fusion; Name: Yamcha + Vegeta)
- Fused Sealas (Ahms and Sealas via Sealas allowing himself to be absorbed by Third Form Ahms)
- Den-Goku (Goku and Dende via the Potara fusion earrings; Name: Dende + Goku)
- Vegecell ("Fusion Frenzy"; Name: Vegeta + Semi-Perfect Cell)
- Broku ("Fusion Frenzy"; Name: Broly + Goku)
- Buuhan ("Fusion Frenzy"; Name: Good Buu + Gohan)
Artificially Created Partial Saiyans
- Baby Vegeta - Genetically modified Tuffle parasite, who takes control of Vegeta's body, creating a Tuffle-Saiyan Hybrid, of sorts.
- Tuffle Parasites - The parasite-infected Trunks, Goten, Gohan and Bulla are all Tuffle-Saiyan-Earthling hybrids.
- Bio-Broly - Clone of Broly.
- Cell - Genetically created using cells from Future Goku and Future Vegeta.
- Clone Goku – Fast grown mindless clones of Goku.
- Clone Vegeta – Fast grown mindless clones of Vegeta.
- Clone Future Trunks - Fast grown mindless clones of Future Trunks.
- Clone Gohan - Fast grown mindless clones of Gohan.
- Clone Cell - Fast grown mindless clones of Cell.
- Duplicate Vegeta - The result of Commeson draining the power of Vegeta and taking on his form.
- Goku's Doll - A magical clay golem of Goku created by Mr. Popo for use as a sparring partner.
- Janemba's Majin Vegeta - Demon clone of Vegeta created by Janemba.
- Mecha Goku - A robotic Android duplicate of Goku created by Bulma in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Mira - Demon/Android who possesses DNA from several races.
- Fu - The son of Mira and Towa
- Shadow Goku - a replication of Goku (as he appears in GT) created by Black Smoke Shenron as his primary method of fighting.
- Dark Gogeta - The Pure Majin Fin after absorbing Super Saiyan 4 Gogeta becomes a Majin-Saiyan hybrid due to his absorption ability allowing him to retain the genetic data of anyone he absorbs, thus he retains the ability to transform into Dark Gogeta even after Gogeta is no longer absorbed.
- Android 21 - A new type of Bio-Android created using the cells of various warriors and scientific researchers. Due to possessing the cellular makeup of Cell, Android 21 is a partial Saiyan due to possessing the cells of Future Goku and Future Vegeta.
- Android 21 (Evil) - Unlike her original self in the Super Warrior Arc scenario, after absorbing Cell, Android 21's skin becomes a darker color and she gains spots. She becomes tremendously more powerful. Even before absorbing Cell, she possesses Goku and Vegeta's cells due to possessing the cellular makeup of Cell as like him her original self was created from the cells of various fighters including Cell himself, which Android 21 (Evil) inherits due to being Android 21's evil fission.
- Android 21 (Good) - The good fission that represents the original personality of Android 21. Like her original self, her fission inherits the cells of Future Goku and Future Vegeta due to possessing the cellular makeup of Cell.
- Ahms - An artificial intelligent robot created by Sealas in Super Dragon Ball Heroes: World Mission. Possesses Saiyan DNA due to his absorption of Super Perfect Cell & Super Saiyan Rosé Goku Black.
- Time Patrol Saiyans
- Ultimate Tenkaichi Hero: The main protagonist in Dragon Ball Z: Ultimate Tenkaichi's Hero mode.
- Saiyan avatars in Dragon Ball Heroes
- Tekka - The customizable main protagonist in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Pinich - A pure Saiyan and friendly rival of Tekka who's wish to Shenron created the Timespace Rift and Timespace Tournament in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Cissito - A mischievous Saiyan kid who loves practical jokes who appears in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Gowry - A Saiyan mercenary who will take on any job if the price is right and will do anything to complete his missions even if it means sacrificing a friend that appears in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Goyan - A crafty Saiyan thug who fights using traps and trickery who appears in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Heiya - A lazy Saiyan who uses Ki blasts and cheap tricks to keep his enemies confused and far away from him that appears in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Huki - A Saiyan boy who decided to enter the Timespace Tournament as a supporter in Dragon Ball Fusions
- Kiclee - A Saiyan girl who admires Super Saiyans and resembles a female version of Goku who appears in Dragon Ball Fusions
- Leganon - An unusual Saiyan businessman who moved to Earth to do business there and dyed his hair blonde so people wouldn't tease him about his height that appears in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Lisee - A super fast and chic Saiyan girl who hates people and things that aren't stylish that appears in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Narmis - An arrogant Saiyan girl who develops crushes on people who defeat her who appears in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Plauto - A gentle Saiyan who quit his job as a soldier and joined the Timespace Tournament after his friend asked him to in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Prika - A Saiyan girl who loves training and resembles a female version of Vegeta who appears in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Quillin - A Saiyan boy and rival of Cissito who is infamous for his tall tales and deception that appears in Dragon Ball Fusions
- Racyoh - A male Saiyan who became a samurai after encountering samurai warriors on Earth who appears in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Ruccola - A female Saiyan who is so obsessed with fashion she removed her tail who appears in Dragon Ball Fusions
- Sage - A cold barbaric low class Saiyan warrior who's invaded many planets that appears in Dragon Ball Fusions
- Stabba - An elderly female Saiyan who came out of retirement to take part in the Timespace Tournament in Dragon Ball Fusions
- Tyber - A male Saiyan Galactic Patrolman who appears in Dragon Ball Fusions
- Vasabi - A Saiyan warrior who learned magical arts since he lacked battle sense that appears in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Yashimo - A male Saiyan who became interested in Demons and Majin in order to obtain their power and techniques that appears in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Zemma - A barbaric male Saiyan warrior who loves to stand out and cares little for his allies who appears in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Zibar - A young Saiyan who became a major delinquent after he was forced to attend high school on Earth since his parents are obsessed with academics who appears in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Zukini - A male Saiyan warrior trainer who has sent many skilled warriors out into the galaxy that appears in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Space Warriors - AB Groupe dub
- Saiya People - Speedy dub
- Guerriers de l'espace - French dub
- Espazioko Gerlariak - Basque dub
- Guerrer de l'Espai - Catalan dub
- Csillagharcos - Hungarian dub
- Kosmiczni Wojownicy - Polish voiceover
- Guerreiros do Espaço - European Portuguese dub
- Guerreiros do Espazo - Galician dub
- Los Guerreros del Espacio - Iberian Spanish dub
- Frieza stated that Goku could not survive in the vacuum of space. In the anime, most of the series has him wearing a spacesuit when venturing into the vacuum of space. King Kai also notes that Saiyans cannot breathe in space as he instructs the Dragon Team not to revive Goku with the Dragon Balls, because he would appear in space, where he would have died from lack of oxygen. Whis also states that Saiyans cannot survive in space when noting that Vegeta would not have survived the destruction of Earth. Though, there have been several instances where Saiyans have been in airless environments for a very short time with no ill consequences. A plausible explanation is that Saiyans do, indeed, need air to breathe, but, due to their superior cardiovascular conditioning, are able to hold their breath for long periods of time, but still need a source of air to retreat into, after a few minutes, which Goku would not have, after Planet Namek had exploded; this is likely as it was stated by Akira Toriyama that Goku was able to survive in the stratosphere in his fight with Beerus thanks to his powerful lungs. Daizenshuu 7 also states that Saiyans cannot survive in space.
- Early in the series, Goku takes Monster Carrot to the moon. It is possible that there is somehow Oxygen on the moon in Dragon Ball as Monster Carrot's allies - who are normal Humans - are able to breathe there.
- In a filler section of the Vegeta Saga, both Vegeta and Nappa are shown outside of their Saiyan pods while Vegeta destroys Arlia.
- In Bardock - The Father of Goku and a flashback in the Frieza Saga (both in the manga and the anime), Bardock is shown in orbit of Planet Vegeta when confronting Frieza.
- In a flashback in Dragon Ball Z: Broly - The Legendary Super Saiyan, both Broly and Paragus are shown in an asteroid field.
- Broly's bio in Dragon Ball: Raging Blast 2 implies that Broly survived in space after being sent into the Sun.
- Saiyans are often associated with monkeys due to their "primate" appearance. Goku is called "monkey boy" when he is a kid, and Frieza and his henchmen (and to a lesser extent, Cooler's Armored Squadron) frequently refer to Saiyans derogatorily as monkeys.
- It is said by Vegeta that powering up in the middle of battle is a trait derived from the Saiyans.
- Vegeta mentions in the episode "Saiyans Emerge" that the hair of a pure-blooded Saiyan will never change after one is born. However, as children, Goku and Vegeta's hair changed. In Bardock - The Father of Goku, Vegeta did not have a widow's peak, and in Dragon Ball, Goku's hair covered half of his forehead. The flashbacks to Broly as an infant in the Broly trilogy also depict his mane-like hair reaching his back while when he's an adult, it only manages to reach just past his shoulders.
- Raditz may be the one true exception, as his hair is the length of his body, both as an adult and as a child.
- Even though Vegeta states that a full-blooded Saiyan's hair stays the same throughout their life, in GT, his hair seems a bit more leveled. But he also could have just trimmed his hair and made it shorter.
- When abbreviating Super Saiyan, people often abbreviate it to SSJ (Super Saiya-Jin) this is actually only correct in Japanese as jin is added as a suffix in Japanese meaning "Person" and is also used when referring to a person or people something that is not practiced in the English language.
- In the Xenoverse series, if the Future Warrior's selected race is a Saiyan, other Pure and Half-Saiyan characters will be surprised and remark on there being more survivors than what they thought. Other cases will include:
- Frieza and Cooler will promise to exterminate each and every last Saiyan remaining.
- Some characters will promise to give everything they got (like Krillin, Tien, and Yamcha), whereas others (such as Goku, Vegeta, and Perfect Cell) will find enjoyment in fighting them.
- The Androids will be interested in seeing the power of the Saiyans, Android 17 notes Saiyans have "violent looks" in their eyes.
- In Piccolo's case, he will remark that the Saiyans aren't the only ones trained in the art of combat.
- Vegeta will likewise retort that his power is on a completely different scale.
- Demigra (like Freiza and his men) will be derogatory towards Saiyans calling a Saiyan Future Warrior "monkey brute" during their fight in the Crack of Time.
- While it is said in Super that Pure-Saiyan males prefer strong-minded females, this appears to be a similar case for Saiyan-hybrids (a notable examples being Gohan, who eventually marries the former tomboyish tsundere Videl).
- Saiyans attacks are always in English regardless of Language used. The only exception is Cumber, who attacks are in French. Toriyama stated at the time it gave Saiyans a foreign prescence for Japanese readers at the time before it became global.
- Saiyans are similar to that of Spartans, a society prominent in 900-200 BC. They share many similarities, as Spartans were focused on strength and strong warriors. It's said Spartans threw off weak and sickly babies into the mountains around their city, leaving them to die, very similar to how newborn Saiyans with low power levels are sent off to weaker planets to grow up alone. Spartans and Saiyans also spend most of their time growing up fighting and training at a very young age.
- Ironically, the original incarnation of Broly would be thrown into the wilderness to die alongside his father similar to Spartan children in the last days of Planet Vegeta's existence, although for nearly the exact opposite reasons (namely, the king feared Broly grow powerful enough to overthrow him due to his abnormally high power level).
- According to Paragus, trust does not exist among the Saiyans.
- Akira Toriyama has said before that he loves films, including many Western films. Among other influences, the concept of the Saiyans were inspired by the Kryptonians, the humanoid extraterrestrial species in the American DC comics universe to which Superman or Kal-El belongs to. The story and behavior of the Saiyans are different from that of the Kryptonians in most of their iterations, however key things remain the same: Both have superhuman strength and other metapowers, although Kryptonians can only use theirs under a yellow sun; Both had their home planet destroyed, although the Saiyans' destroyed planet was not their original homeworld; both species resemble humans almost completely, although the Saiyans have long, thick monkey-like tails; Both are almost radicated completely from existence; and both species had a surviving member shot into space that landed on their universe's respective planet Earth, with the Kryptonians this being Kal-El/Superman and with the Saiyans Kakarot/Goku; both species also have warrior class members. In some DC canons, Kryptonians are no strangers to invading and destroying the life on other planets in order to use them for their gain, although while the Kryptonians often do this in order to create a new Krypton, Saiyans do it so that they can sell barren planets to high-paying buyers. Ironically, Kryptonians were also weak towards mutant apes such as Titano the Super-Ape from exposure to cosmic radiation, while Saiyans were capable of becoming gigantic apes through a similar method.
- Ironically, the eponymous villain protagonist of the horror film BrightBurn, Brandon Breyer, while taking some cues from Superman overall, ended up having his backstory of being sent by an extraterrestrial race to depopulate Earth resemble that of Goku, though the main difference is that BrightBurn wholly embraced his mission ultimately, while Goku thanks to amnesia rejected this path.
- Dragon Ball Z episode 20, "Goku's Ancestors"
- Toriyama Saiyan interview Part 3. pbs.twimg.
- Toriyama Saiyan interview Part 4. pbs.twimg.
- Toriyama Saiyan interview Part 8. pbs.twimg.
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- Saiyan Special Q&A
- Dragon Ball Z episode 29, "Lesson Number One"
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- Daizenshuu 7, 1996
- Dragon Ball Legends Part 8: The Truth Revealed - Book 1, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JMs8tmT97Us
- Dragon Ball Legends Part 6
- Super Exciting Guide: Character Volume, 2009
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- Dragon Ball Legends, 2018
- Dragon Ball Z episode 27, "Goku... Super Saiyan?"
- As stated by Dr. Lychee in Dragon Ball: Plan to Eradicate the Saiyans
- Dragon Ball GT episode 27, "The Attack on Vegeta"
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- Saibaman Character profile. kanzentai.
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- Dragon Ball Z episode 27, "Nimbus Speed"
- Dragon Ball chapter 40, "The Tail of Goku"
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- DBZ Kakarot Saiyan tail
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- Dragon Ball Super chapter 7, "Warriors from Universe 6", page 9
- Dragon Ball Z episode 289, "Granddaughter Pan"
- HUMAN RACIAL DICTIONARY. kanzentai.
- Dragon Ball GT episode 2, "Pan Blasts Off"
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- Grow Up. kanzentai.
- Daizenshuu 2, 1995
- Dragon Ball episode 2, "The Emperor's Quest"
- Dragon Ball episode 24, "Krillin's Frantic Attack"
- Dragon Ball episode 133, "Changes"
- Daizenshuu reedition
- Dragon Ball Z episode 186, "The Unstoppable Gohan"
- Dragon Ball Z episode 227, "Heart of a Villain"
- Toriyama Saiyan interview Part 1. pbd.twimg.
- Toriyama Saiyan interview Part 2. pbs.twimg.
- Dragon Ball episode 16, "Find that Stone!"
- Bulma and Goku
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- Dragon Ball Xenoverse, 2015
- Dragon Ball Xenoverse 2, 2016