Androids (人造人間 Jinzōningen, lit. "Artificial Human") are robotic/cyborg humans, most of which were created by the evil scientist Dr. Gero. Most of the androids are said to have unlimited energy and eternal life. Due to their inorganic nature, they, or at least the ones created by Dr. Gero, except for Cell, also have no detectable aura unlike Saiyans, Humans, and others, so they cannot be directly tracked using Scouters or Ki Sense. The only one that can be sensed via Ki Sense is Gero's ultimate creation, Cell.
In Dragon Ball Fusions, those that are modelled after Earthlings are considered part of the Earthling race, while Mira is considered an Offworlder due to being modelled after the Demon Realm race, Android 76 a Namekian due to being based on Namekians, and Mecha Goku a Saiyan due to being modelled after Goku. Bio-Androids such as Cell and the Cell Juniors are classified as Earthlings, presumably due to being created on Earth despite their extraterrestrial cells.
Androids serve as main villains during the Android conflict, each serving a purpose of their own. Originally, all of the androids were planned to be used to kill Goku, however, most of the androids turned to the good side or are destroyed. However, in Future Trunks' Alternate Timeline, the androids succeed in their plans for world destruction, managing to kill all of the main Dragon Team members (except for Goku, who dies of a heart virus, and Gohan, who survives but is killed 13 years later) until finally being destroyed by Trunks almost 20 years later. However, all these android models may be powerful, but they can be easily beaten if they let their guard down.
There are three models of androids seen in the series, according to their power supplies:
- The Infinite Energy Model: the kind with no drawbacks and an unlimited power supply (such as #8, #16, #17 and #18). This type was said to be more difficult to control (Dr. Gero explains that in order for their infinite energy reactors to function, he had to disable the behavioral limiters wired into their firmware). They are immune to being directly detected via Ki Sense or Scouters due to lacking a ki-signature. However, they can be detected indirectly via their opponents' ki. Androids #17 and #18 are special cases, because they had special infinite power cores, which is required by the Bio-Android, Cell, through absorption of the cyborg duo to reach his Perfect Form. Since they are human-based, these android models can increase their power and get stronger if they train, and still retain their organic reproductive systems, allowing them to reproduce (as in the case of Android #18 giving birth to a healthy daughter, Marron). Despite having no drawbacks and infinite energy and stamina, these androids can still be parred on or even be outclassed by non-android opponents in strength and power, if they do not train that is (Examples when Future Trunks easily destroys Future 17 and 18 with little effort, when Cell easily dominates Present 17 and later, Present 18, and when the God of Destruction, Beerus knocks the latter out by elbowing her from behind). Regardless, they can be vulnerable to attacks if they let their guard down.
- The Energy Absorption Model: the kind which requires constant intake of energy, usually stolen from victims, to keep their power reservoir from draining, which would cause the android to malfunction (such as #19 and #20). The more energy they absorb from their victims, the stronger they get. Curiously, Dr. Gero oversees his configuration into the latter, rather than the type with no apparent limitations (though it is implied by #18 that this is because the energy-absorbing model is easier to control). This model, like the other Android models (exempting Bio-Androids), is immune to being directly detected by Ki Sense or Scouters due to lacking a ki-signature. However, they can be detected indirectly due to the depleting ki-signature of the victim. These androids can be possibly vulnerable if they let their guard down.
- The third kind whose energy exists and circulates as a form of organic ki similar to that of naturally born beings, Bio-Androids (such as Cell and the Cell Juniors), New Type Androids (like Android 21) and Clones (such as Clone Frieza) are the types like this. These androids can be tracked by ki sense, though as Cell proves, they in turn can also learn to sense other's ki as well as mask their own ki signature to elude pursuit, just as organics can. In the case of Cell and all bio-androids based on him, their organic ki is derived from the cells of powerful Saiyans, a Namekian and members of Frieza's race.
- There are also hybrids of the models, such as Super 17, who is both an Infinite Energy Model Android and an Energy Absorption Model Android.
There are four types of androids seen in the series, according to their "base" or materials:
- Biotechnological Type Androids: "modified humans" and "cyborgs", androids made from an original organic (usually a human) as a base (such as #8 (according to some guides), #13 (according to a game), #17, #18 and #20). Since they are human-based, they can become stronger if they train. Despite being referred to as "Androids", other than #20 they possess little to no robotic parts and the alterations to their being are simply a result of their organic matter being reconstructed. Though they do not need to eat, they do need to hydrate. Also, their cells deteriorate slowly, so they age slowly too.
- Mechanical Type Androids: "total artificial construct types", "robots" or "mecha-types", androids which were made up completely from mechanical parts (such as Major Metallitron, #8 (according to Akira Toriyama), #13 (according to a guidebook), #14, #15, #16 and #19). For some reason, the totally artificial ones have a blood-like liquid crimson substance, presumably a kind of power oil.
- Bio-Androids, androids constructed either through biological engineering or as clones spawned from other bio-androids rather than from machine parts and/or a human base (Cell and the Cell Juniors).
- New Type Androids: a superior type of Bio-Android with a higher performance. The only example of this type being #21, who possess the cells of numerous humans, the Z Fighters, Frieza, all of the cells that Cell is made from, and also the good and evil Majin Buus. 21 can absorb others using Majin Buu's Transfiguration Beam.
As the most developed bio-android with the most versatile energy source, Cell also possess elements of the first two android power supply types as well. For one, he is able to absorb the energy of others and integrate them into his being through his tail, either by sucking them up or swallowing them whole. The latter method actually transforms him into a stronger state, and if he absorbs both #17 and #18 this way, he evolves into a highly potent form he describes as "perfection". Also, his cells can store memory of any form of power they ever taste, allowing him to return to that form if he should ever nearly become vaporized after losing it. Thanks to this and combined with the Saiyan Power Regeneration of his Saiyan cell properties, he can in fact return from near death even stronger than ever before no matter how severely he should be weakened beforehand.
Universe 3 is a universe populated by cyborgs, modified beings, and machines. The God of Destruction itself is a robot like being named Mosco, who is actually a robot suit used by Mule, the real God of Destruction. The universe's team during the Tournament of Power: Team Universe 3 is made up of modified warriors, cyborgs and robots. When Team Universe 3 lost in the Tournament of Power, the Androids were erased with the rest of Universe 3. They were later revived when the erased universes were restored.
There are several types of Android present in Universe 3.
- Old robot: robots who cannot speak outside of beeps, the only one of these seen is the God of Destruction Mosco; the robot piloted by Mule.
- Modified warrior: robots and cyborgs who are modified to have combat capabilities, Nigrissi and Narirama are examples of modified warriors.
Red Ribbon Army series
Main article: Red Ribbon Androids
- Major Metallitron – Created by the Red Ribbon Army, destroyed by Goku and again by Pan, and may have not been made by Dr. Gero.
- Dr. Gero's Prototype Androids – Early test models. A superior Super Prototype Android model also existed.
- Android 1 – Considered a failure and destroyed.
- Android 2 – Considered a failure and destroyed.
- Android 3 – Considered a failure and destroyed.
- Android 4 – Considered a failure and destroyed.
- Android 5 – Considered a failure and destroyed.
- Android 6 – Considered a failure and destroyed.
- Android 7 – Considered a failure and destroyed.
- Android 8 – Created by Dr. Gero (and Dr. Flappe in the anime), now living at Jingle Village.
- Android 9 – In Dragon Ball Online, Android 9 is a giant robot replica of Commander Red. In Dragon Ball SD, Android 9 is an Android version of Akio Iyoku labeled as "Iyo-ku-gō" (a play on the name of the V-Jump Editor-in-Chief's name).
- Android 10 – Considered a failure and destroyed.
- Android 11 – Considered a failure and destroyed.
- Android 12 – Considered a failure and destroyed.
- Android 13 – Completed by Dr. Gero's Supercomputer. Does not appear in manga, although the Androids ABCs section implies that they were nearing completion.
- Android 14 – Completed by Dr. Gero's Super Computer. Does not appear in manga, although the Androids ABCs section implies that they were nearing completion; destroyed by Future Trunks in Super Android 13!
- Android 15 – Completed by Dr. Gero's Super Computer. Does not appear in manga, although the Androids ABCs section implies that they were nearing completion; destroyed by Vegeta in Super Android 13!
- Android 16 – Purely robotic with incomplete programming. Destroyed by Perfect Cell during the Cell Games.
- Future Android 16 - Purely robotic with incomplete programming and unable to fulfill his original directive to eliminate Future Goku due to his death by heart virus. Originally he was never activated in the alternate future timeline, but was found by the time traveling Towa and reprogrammed to serve the Time Breakers in altering the history of the future timeline.
- Android 16 (new model) - A new model of Android 16 with all of the original's memories though without his program to kill Goku, created and later destroyed by Android 21. Is dedicated to protecting Android 21's "heart" from the insatiably hungry & evil personality created by her cells going out out control.
- Android 16A – Copy of #16 created by the Red Pants Army.
- Android 16B – Copy of #16 created by the Red Pants Army.
- Android 16C – Copy of #16 created by the Red Pants Army.
- Knight Destroyer - The older and more powerful variant of the Destroyer. It possessed several variants: Metal Hulk and Shadow Colossus. Pilaf's Guardian was also a Knight Destroyer.
- Destroyer - Mass-produced military robot. It possessed several variants: Red Destroyer, Green Destroyer, Gokd Destroyer, Annihilator and Death Machine.
- Android 17 – A cyborg, he was considered a failure. Resurrected and living in peace by himself. Participated in the Tournament of Power. Fused with Hell Fighter 17 in Dragon Ball GT.
- Android 18 – A cyborg, she was considered a failure by Dr. Gero. Living in peace with Krillin. Participated in the Tournament of Power.
- Future Android 18 – A cyborg, considered a failure. Reigned terror on Earth for nearly 20 years until eventually destroyed by Future Trunks.
- Android 19 – Purely robotic, considered a success, destroyed by Vegeta.
- Android 20 – Robotic body of Dr. Gero with the organic brain of the late doctor installed in the head. Android 20 was destroyed by Android 17 and then again by Super 17.
- Android 21 - A female new type Bio-Android created from the human mother of Dr. Gero's son and incorporated with the cells of countless researcher and fighters that appear insatiable hunger to consume others due to her cells going out of control. Has little to no memory of her human life after becoming a Bio-Android beyond that she was the mother of Android 16's human template.
- Android 21 (Good) - The good half of Android 21 after a fission that is the manifestation of Android 21's "heart" or true original personality. Refuses to give into her hunger and opposes her evil counterpart.
- Android 21 (Evil) - The evil half of Android 21 after a fission that is the manifestation of Android 21's evil persona. Absorbs Cell shortly after her fission which alters her appearance and increases her power. Sees all other beings as food.
- Clones - Dark mindless fast grown clones of powerful warriors created by Android 21.
- Clone Friezas - Clones of the tyrant Frieza. One obedient and intelligent Clone of Mecha Frieza is created by Dr. Gero in Dragon Ball Z: Supersonic Warriors. The ones created by Android 21 are mindless clones of Frieza that appear as enemies in Dragon Ball FighterZ.
- Clone Cells - Mindless Bio-Android clones of Perfect Cell.
- Clone Buu - Fast grown clones of Majin Buu, which due to the unruly nature of Majin cells are essentially heartless Pure Majins that are simply another pure incarnation of Kid Buu inheriting his personality and mannerisms due to the dormant power of Kid Buu being present in the cells of Good Buu.
- Android 33 – An Android created from Dr. Gero's villain database and a playable character in Dragon Ball Fusions. Classified as an Earthling in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Android 44 – An Android created from Dr. Gero's villain database and a playable character in Dragon Ball Fusions. Classified as an Earthling in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Android 55 – An Android created from Dr. Gero's villain database and a playable character in Dragon Ball Fusions. Classified as an Earthling in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Android 76 – A Namekian Android created from Dr. Gero's villain database and a playable character in Dragon Ball Fusions. Classified as a Namekian in Dragon Ball Fusions due to being modeled after the Namekian race.
- Android 8000 – An android in Dragon Ball Online, based off Android 8.
- Android 19000 – An android in Dragon Ball Online, based off Android 19.
- Nim – A male Android who is the Android "Hero" avatar in Dragon Ball Heroes, and who was named in Dragon Ball Heroes: Victory Mission.
- Nico – A female Android who is the Android "Elite" avatar in Dragon Ball Heroes, and who was named in Dragon Ball Heroes: Victory Mission.
- Super Android 13 – Android 13 fused with Android 14 and Android 15, destroyed by Goku in Super Android 13!
- Super 17 – Fusion of Android 17 and Hell Fighter 17, half-cyborg and half-machine mutant, destroyed by Goku and Android 18.
- Android 1617 - The EX-Fusion of Android 16 & Android 17 who appears in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Android 1718 - The EX-Fusion of Android twins 17 & 18 who appears in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Arale 18 - The EX-Fusion of the female androids Arale Norimaki & Android 18 who appears in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Android 1920 - The EX-Fusion of Android 19 & his creator Dr. Gero/Android 20 who appears in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Android 35 - The hypothetical Potara Fusion between Android 17 and Android 18.
Main article: Bio-Android
- Sandmen – Bio-Androids in Dragon Ball Z: Attack of the Saiyans.
- Yorgans – Bio-Androids in Attack of the Saiyans.
- Failed Experiments – Bio-Androids in Attack of the Saiyans.
- Cell – Bio-mechanical, killed by Gohan.
- Cell Juniors – Bio-Androids who are the offspring of Cell, destroyed by Gohan.
- Super 17 w/ Cell absorbed – The form Super 17 takes after absorbing the Bio-Android Cell. The form appears in Dragon Ball Heroes only.
- Genome – A Bio-Android who is the Android "Berserker" avatar in Dragon Ball Heroes, and who was named in Dragon Ball Heroes: Victory Mission.
- Mira - An artificial Demon created in Demon Realm by the scientist Towa by condensing the DNA and energy collected from various martial arts masters and warriors throughout history. He is Towa's partner as well Dabura's successor as Demon King, a leader of the Time Breakers and destroyer of New Namek. Antagonist in Dragon Ball Online and the Xenoverse series.
- Perfect 16 - The EX-Fusion of Perfect Cell & Android 16 who appears in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Cell 17 - The EX-Fusion of Perfect Cell & Android 17 who appears in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Cellza - The EX-Fusion of Perfect Cell & Frieza who appears in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Ultra Pinich - The Five-Way Fusion of Cell, Frieza, Pinich, Wanta, and Paprika who appears in Dragon Ball Fusions.
- Damira - The EX-Fusion of Mira & Dabura.
- Arale Norimaki – Created by Senbei Norimaki in Dr. Slump and is the first successfully built android.
- Caramel Man series – The Android series created by Dr. Mashirito and his son in Dr. Slump.
- Obotchaman – Created by Dr. Mashirito and is based on the same design plans that made Arale. Originally known as Caramel Man 004 though was later redubbed Caramel Man 010 after Dr. Mashirito brainwashed him to be a loyal evil Android.
- Abale - Created by Dr. Mashirito Jr. to be Arale's evil opposite though she simply has a rebellious "bad girl" persona and isn't evil. Also known as Caramel Man 23.
- Pirate Robots - Combat robots created by pirates to protect their treasure, the one that appeared in Dragon Ball was numbered "2" on its legs. A variant numbered "3" appears in Dragon Ball Online.
- Seventhree - OG73-1 is a powerful artificial being created on a planet with advanced technology and science.
- Bio Mech - A type of enemy in Buu's Fury.
- Warlord - A boss in Buu's Fury who turned himself into a Bio Mech.
- Ultra Bio Mech - An upgraded version of the Bio Mech in Buu's Fury.
- Cyborgs - A type of enemy in Buu's Fury.
- Cyborg Tao – Mercenary Tao was rebuilt as a cyborg after being defeated by Goku. He describes himself as "the world's first cyborg assassin."
- Hyper Cyborg - An upgraded version of the Cyborg in Buu's Fury.
- Dr. Kochin – Movie character, accidentally destroyed by Dr. Wheelo (knocked him into a chasm where he exploded).
- Dr. Wheelo – Movie character, killed by Goku in Dragon Ball Z: The World's Strongest.
- Cacao – Movie character only, half android-half Ikonda-seijin (a cyborg). Killed by Goku in Dragon Ball Z: The Tree of Might.
- Compression-01 - A member of the Guard Troops. It also has several variants.
- Frieza Race members who utilized Cosmic Suit
- Mecha Frieza – Frieza was rebuilt thanks to his father soon after the latter found him injured following his deadly battle against Super Saiyan Goku, becoming half organic, half mechanical (like Mercenary Tao). Mecha Frieza retained his cybernetics while in Hell, though after he was revived Frieza lost his cybernetics after the pieces of his Mecha Frieza form were placed in the Frieza Force's new Medical Machine and he reverted to his 1st form free of his cybernetic enhancements.
- Meta-Coolers – Movie characters, destroyed by Goku and Vegeta in Dragon Ball Z: The Return of Cooler.
- Meta-Cooler Core – Cooler revived as the core of the Big Gete Star.
- Super Class-up Rezok
- Chivalet - A Frieza Race Time Patroller equipped with a Cosmic Suit in Dragon Ball Xenoverse 2 .
- Hiebie - A Frieza Race Time Patroller equipped with a Cosmic Suit who claims to have caught a cold during Frieza's Siege on Conton City in Xenoverse 2.
- Mechanoid - An enemy in Buu's Fury
- Crook - The Warlord's right-hand man.
- Power Mechanoid - An upgraded version of the Mechanoid.
- Tuffle Machines
- Time Breaker cyborg
- Mecha Goku - A metallic android duplicate of Goku created by Bulma to be a training partner for Vegeta to use in Dragon Ball Fusions. Capable of transforming into Super Mecha Goku, which resembles Goku's Super Saiyan form and causes Mecha Goku's metallic body to turn golden. Classified as a Saiyan in Dragon Ball Fusions due to being modeled after the pure-Saiyan Goku.
Main article: Bio-Warrior
- Bio-Men – Bio-Warriors created by Dr. Kochin.
- Kishime – A Bio-Warrior created by Dr. Kochin.
- Misokatsun – A Bio-Warrior created by Dr. Kochin.
- Ebifurya – A Bio-Warrior created by Dr. Kochin.
- Bio-Broly – Bio-Warrior clone of Broly created by Dr. Collie.
- Bio-Warriors – Biological warriors created by human scientists.
- Mosco - An old robot used by Mule to act as the God of Destruction of Universe 3.
- Anilaza - Fusion warrior of Koichiarator and Paparoni.
- Bollarator - Robot, member of Team Universe 3.
- Catopesra - Cyborg, member of Team Universe 3.
- Koichiarator - Fusion warrior of Bollarator, Koitsukai and Panchia.
- Koitsukai - Robot, member of Team Universe 3.
- Maji Kayo - Cyborg, member of Team Universe 3.
- Narirama - Robot, member of Team Universe 3.
- Nigrissi - Cyborg, member of Team Universe 3.
- Panchia - Robot, member of Team Universe 3.
- Paparoni - Cyborg, member of Team Universe 3.
- Viara - Robot, member of Team Universe 3.
- Za Priccio - Cyborg, member of Team Universe 3.
Certain Androids have shown the ability to take on a form labeled "Super Android". In the anime and movies, the only Super Androids shown are Super Android 13 and Super Android 17, both obtaining their forms by merging with other Androids in order to increase their power.
Main article: Bio-Android transformations
Main article: God Class-up In Dragon Ball Heroes, the Android Hero Nimu and the Android Elite Nico are capable of taking on a god state like all of the other avatars using God Power.
Main article: Super Mecha In Dragon Ball Fusions, Mecha Goku can transform into his Super Mecha form which is a transformation modeled after Super Saiyan Goku. Causes his hair to spike up like Goku's Super Saiyan form and causes his body to turn gold.
Main article: Supervillain In Dragon Ball Xenoverse 2, by using Towa's Dark Magic to shave off a bit of life force, Perfect Cell and Metal Cooler can transform into their Supervillain forms which cause them to gain a black & white aura along with glowing pink eyes, and a glowing Time Breaker symbol on their forehead. Mira also takes on this form by overcoming his power limiter, even though doing so recklessly causes him to start overheating and according to Towa, will eventually cause him to self-destruct, producing an explosion that she surmises could threaten to wipe out the universe.
During the Universal Conflict Saga, Cooler is cybernetically rebuilt into a Meta-Cooler by Fu. As Cooler had previously acquired his Golden Cooler form, Meta-Cooler can transform into Golden Meta-Cooler though if he remains in that form for too long his cybernetics will overheat.
- At the beginning of Dr. Slump (set 5 years before the beginning of Dragon Ball), Senbei Norimaki claims that Arale who he created was the first perfected humanoid android on Earth.
- Before the android concept had become more fleshed out in the anime series, particularly by the Trunks Saga (when previously there were only a few android characters in the franchise), the term 'android' is used in "Enter Goku" by Vegeta, to describe the seemingly invincible Recoome. Funny enough, Android 16 looks very similar to Recoome in terms of hair and stature.
- Although #8, #17, #18, and #20 (Dr. Gero) are called androids, they are actually cyborgs. Cyborgs, being short for Cybernetic Organism. are robotically enhanced living organisms, whereas androids are fully artifical creations. (the androids are called cyborgs in some dubs).
- Despite being mechanical, thus having no soul or inner essence, even the full androids still manage to make it to other world after their destruction (as Kochin's Bio-men are seen in Fusion Reborn, and Android 19 is seen in Dragon Ball GT).
- Some Dragon Ball Z video games that use aura to show ones level of ki (such as Dragon Ball Z: Budokai 3), do not show an aura for Androids. In the Budokai Tenkaichi series, Androids can not charge their ki up, with it instead constantly recharging on its own. However Android 17 is briefly seen powering up with an aura in Dragon Ball Super's second intro.
- Androids, like 17 and 18, are not required to eat but must hydrate which results in them living longer than normal humans.
- Some Androids, like No. 17, 18, and Cell, can feel pain, mainly because 17 and 18 are human-based, and Cell is a bio-engineered type Android, at one time, when Super Saiyan 2 Gohan kicks him hard in the stomach, this caused so much great pain that he threw up 18, and then Android 18 is shown hurt and injured during her fight against Mighty Mask (Goten and Trunks), and Bio-Broly when at one time, he breaks her arm, causing her to scream in pain. When Super Buu turns her and Marron into chocolate, she screams in agony, and when Future Android 17 is blown to bits by Future Trunks, he is heard screaming, in the Funimation dub and Dragon Ball Z Kai only, in the original Japanese version of Dragon Ball Z, Future Android 17 is not heard screaming, in the Funimation version of Kai, Future 17's scream is barely heard, compared to the previous dub of Z, while in the Japanese version, his scream is loud and is heard very clearly.
- Despite her infinite energy supply, Android 18 cannot move when she was turned into chocolate by Super Buu, mainly because the victim must have massive amounts of strength, and not power or energy, to move their candied bodies, in the case of Candy Vegito, who can move as a jawbreaker because of his overwhelming strength as well as power, and he even can talk as a mere candy.
- However in the Xenoverse series, any fighter turned into candy can move around though they are unable to attack until they return to normal.
- It is shown that Cyborg-type Androids are capable of taking baths without short-circuiting themselves, as shown with Android 18, although offscreen, took a bath with her daughter, Marron, as evidenced by a towel on their heads.
- Strangely, in the Cell Games Saga, Android 18 is shown short-circuiting when Super Perfect Cell powers up, with pink surges of electricity crackling around her.
- It should be noted that save for their Android Bombs which were later removed both Android 17 & 18 are humans primarily enhanced will organic bio-matter and have little to no mechanical/cybernetic components according to Bulma's research of Android 17's blueprints thus 17 & 18 would have little to no parts to short-circuit and their bombs are likely water resistant as the human body contains water.
- In fact, the human body contains approximately 60% Total Body Water for an adult male while approximately 55% of Total Body Water for an adult female thus presumably Human-tupe Earthlings would share a similar amount of Total Body Water as real world humans. Water is also a common substance that covers much of the Earth in the real and fictional world of Dragon Ball. Also Dr. Gero being a brilliant scientist wouldn't have created advanced Android killing machines that could easily short-circuit with a simple splash or rain storm thus them not short-circuiting is completely understandable when one realizes the impracticality of a Android short-circuiting like a common electrical appliance when exposed to something as common as water.
- When Android 17 appeared in Dragon Ball Super's second opening sequence, there is a scene that he produces an aura as he fires a ki blast, despite being an android/cyborg, which is somewhat strange, as cyborg-type androids are not supposed to produce such auras, as they have insensible and artificial ki and infinite power supply that recharges on its own without the use of such an aura.